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ll, used for sitting or reclining upon, or beneath the couches; as the Sardinian carpets, mentioned by a Grecian poet, — Beneath the ivory feet of purple-cushioned couches. Phoenicia sends us dates across the billows, And Carthage, carpets rich, and well-stuffed pillows. Hermippus, quoted by Athenaeus (A. D. 220). At the supper of Iphicrates, purple carpets were spread on the floor; and at the magnificent banquet of Ptolemy Philadelphus, an account of which is given by Callixenus of Rhodes, we learn that underneath 200 golden couches were strewed purple carpets of the finest wool, with the carpet pattern on both sides; and there were handsomely embroidered rugs, very beautifully elaborated with figures. Besides this, he adds, thin Persian cloths covered all the center space where the guests walked, having the most accurate representations of animals embroidered on them. The Babylonians were very skillful in weaving cloths of divers colors; we read of a goodly Babylonish ga
y of Lochias, on which was the royal palace. Fires were kept lighted on the summit, and it was inscribed, King Ptolemy to the gods, the saviors, for the benefit of sailors. Sostratus carved his own name beneath and filled it with mortar, upon which Ptolemy's name was inscribed. In process of time the mortar scaled off and brought the name of the architect to the surface. The tower fell A. D. 1303. Other ancient lighthouses were situated at Messina, Ostea, Ravenna, Puteoli, Caprea, Rhodes, Dover, the Thracian Bosphorus. The light in each was obtained by fires. During the Saxon rule in England, beacons were erected to direct navigation, and persons were appointed to keep them in order. The expense was defrayed by the county. Pitch boxes were made use of in the reign of Edward III. Lighthouses. The Eddystone lighthouse (b) is erected upon a rock of that name ten miles from shore, off Plymouth, England. A lighthouse was built on the spot, 1696-99, by Winstanley, who
ound in the tombs, and it was probably almost as common as coir or cocoa-nut fiber in India. The ropes which supported the planks of the Hellespont bridge constructed for Xerxes were of papyrus and flax. These were the ordinary materials for the purpose in Egypt, from which country the king had a large contingent. See military-bridge. Ropes of goat's hair are mentioned by Aristotle and Virgil. The famous vessel, the Syracusia, built for Hiero, was furnished with hempen ropes from Rhodes, according to Moschion. The ropes of the Tartars are made of camel's hair or horsehair. — Huc. Coir rope is manufactured from the husk or pericarp of the cocoa-nut. The nuts are picked a little before the fruit is ripe, and the rind separated by thrusting it upon an iron stake fixed in the ground. The rind is then water-soaked for several months, to separate the fibers from the interstitial matter, is beaten with a heavy mallet upon a stone, and then rubbed by the hands to rid it
of the exterior iron plate, with a corrugated steel plate or strips of steel, so as to prevent drilling into the safe. Rhodes, 1859. Admitting a flow of cold water to circulate between the inner and outer walls of a safe and its door by a valve wby a time or percussion fuse. (See cannon; projectile; fuse.) Invented at Venlo, 1495; used by the Turks at the siege of Rhodes, 1522. Bomb-vessels were constructed in France, 1681. Shells are usually made of cast-iron, and for mortars and smo Aristotle, they are gathered by a brotherhood of divers, who inhabit the islands off the Carian coast, and those between Rhodes and Calymnos. A coarse quality of sponge is found on the coasts of Florida and the West Indies. These are gathered withof Venus, at Rome. It was of bronze, the work of Zenodorus, and Pliny gives its hight as 110 feet, — larger than that of Rhodes. About 1491 B. C., he [Aaron] received them [the golden ear rings of the people] at their hand, and fashioned it with
to Saigon, Cochin China62060 Date.FromLength in Miles.Greatest Depth in Fathoms. 1871Saigon to Hong Kong975630 1871Hong Kong to Shanghai1,10042 1871Shanghai, China, to Nagasaki, Japan1,200135 1871Nagasaki to Vladivostock, Siberia80 1871Rhodes to Marmarice22 1871Latakia to Cyprus86 1871Samos to Scala Nuova1182 1871Myteleni to Aivali1333 1871Khania to Retimo32200 1871Retimo to Khandia41152 1871Khandia to Rhodes201600 1871Khios to Chesmeh633 1871Zante to Corfu150 1871Zante to CeRhodes201600 1871Khios to Chesmeh633 1871Zante to Corfu150 1871Zante to Cephalonia18203 1871Lowestoft, England, to Greitseil, Germany22323 1871Anjer, Java, to Telok Betong, Sumatra5550 1871Banjoewangie, Java, to Port Darwin, Australia1,0821,580 1871St. Thomas to St. Kitts1331,170 1871St. Kitts to Antigua90130 1871Antigua to Demerara, connecting the West India Windward Islands1,028 1871Porto Rico to Jamaica582 1872Lizard, England, to Bilbao, Spain460 1872British Columbia to Vancouver Island.18 1873Falmouth to Lisbon850 1873Caithness to Orkney8 1873Valentia