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bladder. See Lithontripter ; litholabe ; lithotomy forceps ; lithotomy knife ; lithotomy staff,, etc. Cale-bas′ser-ie. (Fr.) A Belgian method of remelting iron in a sort of cupola furnace. Ca-lech′. A small hooded carriage on two wheels. Cal′en-dar-clock. One which indicates, in ad- dition to the minute and hour of the day, the day of the week and month, — sometimes the year also, with the phases of the moon, etc. The Roman calendar is said to have been introduced by Romulus, 738 B. C., who divided the year into ten months, comprising 304 days; fifty days less than the lunar year, and 61 days less than the solar year. Its commencement, therefore, did not correspond with any fixed season. Numa Pompilius, they tell us, 713 B. C., corrected it by adding two months, and made it commence at the winter solstice. Julius Caesar, 46 B. C., sent for Sosigenes of Alexandria, who again corrected it, making the year 365 days, 6 hours, every fourth year being leapyear.
d to the above, and may be be termed engraving in stone. Egypt is one triumphant vindication of the skill and industry of that nation in this particular. The warlike Osymandyas, nearly 200 years before Abraham, perpetuated upon granite the memory of his exploits, which reached as far as and included Bactria. The temples, tombs, and obelisks of Egypt, the sculptured palaces of Nineveh, and the gorgeous rilievos of Persepolis, attest the skill and fancy of the artists of the times Ere Romulus and Remus. From Egypt or Phoenicia the Greeks received the art of engraving, where it had considerably advanced in the time of Homer. Among other uses which are allied to chasing and inlaying, it was employed in delineating maps on metallic plates. Specimens of Etrurian art are also of great antiquity, and we prudently do not enter the arena to settle the questions of precedence so lately revived by the wonderful discoveries of General Di Cesnola, in Cyprus. In the temple of Jupite
n the absence of metal, celts or hammers of stone were used. Mallets and wedges of stone were used in ancient Egypt, and were found in the pyramids of Cheops and Ghizeh. Among other remnants of other centuries, gathered by Mr. Burton in Egypt, he found an old mallet in Thebes; it was in a basket along with drills, bow, chisels, an oil-horn, a saw, and a nail-bag, and had been locked up in a dry and dusty tomb at a time when Greece had not felt the light of science, and centuries before Romulus and Remus. Perhaps the workman had been putting the finishing touch to some of the fittings of the tomb, and accidentally left it inside when the door was closed, as they supposed, forever, or until the shell of the body was revived to receive its old tenant. The successors of the carpenter in the twentieth generation may have suffered from the wrath of Cambyses. a b c d are chisels and drills. c a drill-bow, the leather string lost. f, whorl of the drill. g, saw; h, hone. i, o
nessing of horses in Egypt and Mesopotamia was by a yoke. See har-ness; chariot. A pair of oxen was sufficient for the light implement; and when we read of Elisha, the son of Shaphat, plowing with twelve yoke before him, and he with the twelfth, we are to understand that twelve teams and plows were in the field. The unit of measurement of farming land was the quantity (jugerum) that a yoke (juger) of oxen would plow in a day; and we read of a time centuries before the period assigned to Romulus, that Jonathan and his armor-bearer killed twenty men within as it were half the space which a yoke of oxen might plow in a day. About one hundred and eighty years after the times of the scrimmage over against Micmash, we find Hesiod writing about his farm in Boeotia and farming matters in general. These primitive plows must have been peculiarly inefficient in his land, which he describes as bad in winter, hard in summer, and never good. The enthusiasm about Mount Helicon was and is exot