indiscriminate war waged
action of Confederate Congress
confiscation act of United States Congress
declared object of the war
powers of United States government
due process of law, how interpreted
who pleads the Constitution?
wanton destruction of private property unlawful
Adams on terms of the Treaty of Ghent
order of President Lincoln to army officers in regard to slaves
Educating the people
proclamation of General W. T. Sherman
proclamation of General Halleck and others
letters of marque
officers tried for piracy
discussion in the British House of Lords
recognition of the Confederacy as a belligerent
exchange of prisoners
theory of the United States
views of McClellan
revolutionary conduct of United States government
extent of the war at the close of 1861
victories of the year
New branches of manufactures
election of Confederate States President
de about this time.
Major General George B. McClellan was assigned to the chief command of his army, in place of Lieutenant General Scott, retired.
A Department of Ohio was constituted, embracing the states of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Kentucky east of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers; Brigadier General D. C. Buell was assigned to its command.
At the same time, General Henry W. Halleck superseded General John C. Fremont in command of the United States Department of the West. General W. T. Sherman was removed from Kentucky and sent to report to General Halleck. General A. S. Johnston was now confronted by General Halleck in the West and by General Buell in Kentucky.
The former, with armies at Cairo and Paducah, under Generals Grant and C. F. Smith, threatened equally Columbus, the key of the lower Mississippi River, and the water lines of the Cumberland and the Tennessee, with their defenses at Forts Donelson and Henry.
The right wing of General Buell also menaced Donelson a
t two thirty-two pounders and three carronades in a remote outwork, which had been rendered useless.
The movement of the enemy up the Tennessee River commenced on March 10th. General C. F. Smith led the advance, with a new division under General Sherman.
On the 13th Smith assembled four divisions at Savannah, on the west bank of the Tennessee, at the Great Bend.
The ultimate design was to mass the forces of Grant and Buell against our army at Corinth.
Buell was still in the occupation of Nashville.
On the 16th Sherman disembarked at Pittsburg Landing, and made a reconnaissance to Monterey, nearly half-way to Corinth.
On the next day General Grant took command.
Two more divisions were added, and he assembled his army near Pittsburg Landing, which was the most advantageous base for a movement against Corinth.
Here it lay inactive until the battle of Shiloh.
The Tennessee flows northwest for some distance until, a little west of Hamburg, it takes its final bend to the nort
re Colonel Webster, of Grant's staff, had gathered all the guns he could find from batteries, whether abandoned or still coherent, and with stouthearted men, picked up at random, had prepared a resistance.
Some infantry, similarly constituted, had been got together; and Ammen's brigade, the van of Nelson's division of Buell's corps, had landed, and was pushing its way through the throng of pallid fugitives at the landing to take up the battle where it had fallen from the hands of Grant and Sherman.
It got into position in time to do its part in checking the unsupported assaults of Chalmers and Jackson.
General Chalmers, describing this final attack in his report, says:
It was then about four o'clock in the evening, and, after distributing ammunition, we received orders from General Bragg to drive the enemy into the river.
My brigade together with that of Brigadier-General Jackson, filed to the right and formed facing the river, and endeavored to press forward to the water's
Raleigh's services were almost valueless in consequence of her deep draught and her feeble steam-power.
She made one futile trip out of New Inlet, and after a few hours attempted to return, but was wrecked upon the bar.
The brave and invincible defense of Fort Sumter gave to the city of Charleston, South Carolina, additional lustre.
For four years that fort, located in its harbor, defied the army and navy of the United States.
When the city was about to be abandoned to the army of General Sherman, the forts defending the harbor were embraced in General Hardee's plan of evacuation.
The gallant commander of Fort Sumter, Colonel Stephen Elliott, Jr., with unyielding fortitude refused to be relieved, after being under incessant bombardment day and night for weeks.
It was supposed he must be exhausted, and he was invited to withdraw for rest, but on receiving the general order of retreat he assembled his brave force on the rugged and shell-crushed parade-ground, read his instructio
to this force the enemy had at Memphis, under Sherman, about 6,000 men; at Bolivar, under Ord, abomanner.
In the latter part of December General Sherman, having descended the Mississippi River, without conclusive results.
On the 31st General Sherman sent in a flag of truce to bury the dead.ected cooperation by his forces with those of Sherman had been prevented by the brilliant cavalry eed, in connection with the river campaign, by Sherman, and a new plan of operations resulted therefe is described as follows:
Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, Vol.
I, pp. 310, 311.
I soon fou
I have lately arrived, and learn that Major-General Sherman is between us, with four divisions at brigades from several corps, and assigned General Sherman to command it. He was sent in the directich for the expected advance of Johnston, when Sherman was to be notified, so that he might meet andd be compelled to make an immediate assault.
Sherman, in command of the attacking column, did not,
ed the valley.
Subsequently we lost the remaining heights held by us west of Lookout Creek.
Further operations of the enemy were delayed until the arrival of Sherman's force from Memphis.
After his arrival, on November 23d, an attempt was made to feel our lines.
This was done with so much force as to obtain possession of Indian Hill and the low range of hills south of it. That night Sherman began to move to obtain a position just below the mouth of the South Chickamauga, and by daylight on the 24th he had eight thousand men on the south side of the Tennessee, and fortified in rifle trenches.
By noon pontoon bridges were laid across the Tennessee and possession of the mountain top with a part of his force, and with the remainder crossed Chattanooga Valley to Rossville.
Our most northern point was assailed by Sherman, and the attack kept up all day. He was reenforced by a part of Howard's corps.
In the afternoon the whole force of the enemy's center, consisting of four divisi
our forces under General Richard Taylor, not so much to get possession of the country as to obtain the cotton in that region.
Their forces were to be commanded by Major General Banks, and to consist of his command, augmented by a part of Major General Sherman's army from Vicksburg, and accompanied by a fleet of gunboats under Admiral Porter.
With these the force under General Steele, in Arkansas, was to Cooperate.
Taylor's forces at this time consisted of Harrison's mounted regiment with a fed, contained eight heavy guns and two field pieces.
Three companies of mounted men were watching the Mississippi, and the remainder of a regiment was on the Teche.
On March 12th Admiral Porter, with nineteen gunboats and ten thousand men of Sherman's army, entered the Red River.
A detachment on the 14th marched to De Russy and took possession of it. On the 15th the advance of Porter reached Alexandria, and on the 19th General Franklin left the lower Teche with eighteen thousand men to me
The only method of arresting Sherman's advance was to send a force into his rear,
In either case, he thought, he could defeat Sherman, and probably destroy his army.
I said to d men, intended either as a reenforcement for Sherman or for an attack on Mobile; that, to meet thierstand General Johnston to say he could hold Sherman north of the Chattahoochee River?
From fifty General Wheeler at Newnan, and the defeat of Sherman's design to unite his cavalry at the Macon anthis could be accomplished, all the fruits of Sherman's successful campaign in Georgia would be blithem.
If this, as was probable, should cause Sherman to move to attack us in position, in that casne projected by me. The correspondence of General Sherman, published in the same work, shows that He enemy, he can scarcely change the plans for Sherman's or Grant's campaigns.
They would, I think,r, when, on December 20th, he discovered that Sherman had put heavy siege guns in position near eno[52 more...]
hange, which liberates all prisoners taken, we will have to fight on until the whole South is exterminated.
If we hold those caught, they amount to no more than dead men. At this particular time to release all rebel prisoners North would insure Sherman's defeat, and would compromise our safety here.
We now proposed to the government of the United States to exchange the prisoners respectively held, officer for officer and man for man. We had previously declined this proposal, and insisted o public pressure by the owners of slaves upon the rebel Government, in order to forbid their exchange.
The report continues:
In case the Confederate authorities took the same view as General Grant, believing that an exchange would defeat Sherman and imperil the safety of the Armies of the Potomac and the James, and therefore should yield to the argument, and formally notify me that their former slaves captured in our uniform would be exchanged as other soldiers were, and that they were