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quadron. (From Sar. Emir, the Sea.) To be the mast Of some great ammiral. — Paradise Lost, B. I. A-do′be. Adobes, or unburnt bricks, are principally in vogue in the plains of Shinar and Egypt, and in China and certain portions of North America inhabited by the Puebla Indians. If well burned, the clay forever loses its plasticity, and cannot again be reduced to a mortar. If it be merely dried, it will assume its original condition, as it came from the pug-mill. Such has lately (1k and leave the point in the wound. The serrated weapon of the sting ray is used by the Malays for heading some of these blow-arrows, with the express intention that they might break off in the wound. The arrow-heads of the Shoshones of North America, said to be poisoned, are tied on purposely with gut in such a manner as to remain when the shaft is withdrawn. A similar idea is carried out, in a Venetian dagger of glass with a three-edged blade, having a tube in the center to receive p
to Wilkinson, still remain in Lower Egypt, independent of several smaller ones at Thebes. Two are close to Memphis and the modern town of Dashoor; the others stand at the entrance to the Fyoom. They are built of adobes, and their chambers have arched brick ceilings; but the arch was long previously used in Thebes, and was invented and used in Upper Egypt many centuries before Asychis. No trace of a burned brick has been found of the ancient age represented by the tumuli-builders of North America. Strabo speaks of bricks made of an earth at Pitane, in the Troad, so light that they swam in water. Poseidonius speaks of bricks made in Spain of an argillaceous earth wherewith silver vessels are cleansed [rottenstone], and so light as to float in water. The Roman bricks, in the time of Pliny, were of three sizes, the largest a foot and a half in length by a foot in breadth, and called the Lydian. The names of the others were derived from their being respectively four and five
ith the Danes in the time of Alfred the Great, ninth century. It is also shown in the sculptures of Karnak, in Egypt. The battle-axe of the Scythians in the time of Herodotus was double-bitted. It is the Sacan sagaris. Seylax, an historian of an age preceding that of Herodotus, compared Egypt to a double-bitted axe, the neck which joins the two heads being at the narrow part of the valley in the vicinity of Memphis. The double-bitted axe is found in the tumuli and barrows of North America. It is in three forms: 1, with a circumferential groove for the occupation of the withe or split handle to which it is lashed; 2, with an eye traversing the head; 3, with a socket for the handle. See axe; battle-axe; hatchet. Doub′le-block. (Nautical.) A block with two sheaves which are ordinarily placed on the same pin, but rotate in separate mortises in the shell. Other double-blocks have the sheaves arranged one above the other. See long-tackle block; shoe-block; fidd
uch treatment. The North American Indians, who had maize, pounded it in this manner to make a coarse meal or hominy; large stones in their villages formed permanent mortars. Their pestles were sometimes fortuitous bowlders of convenient shape, sometimes they were fashioned into a shape like a painter's muller, or even approximating the form of dumb-bells. Collections of curiosities abound with specimens of this rudimentary grinding-mill. The Smithsonian Institution has many such from North America and the South Seas. The mortarium, or mola trusatilis, was a modification of this form, and Pliny states the bread made of the broken grain to be superior, in the estimation of some, to that more closely ground in the mills of more perfect construction, and leaves us to infer that throughout the greater part of Italy the grain for bread is pounded in a mortar by an iron-shod pestle. The Romans had great variety of bread, the best and most fashionable the alica; also ostrearius (oyst
ect, the principal object being to obtain an inextinguishable composition for charging shells, to be ignited either by time-fuse or by percussion. The only shells of the incendiary kind generally recognized in modern warfare are carcasses (which see). In-cer′tum. A form of masonry made of a facing of square stones of irregular sizes and a filling of rubble. Rubble-work. See masonry. Inch. The 1/36 of a yard; the 1/12 of a foot. The yard is the standard in England and in North America. See unit. In′cli-na-tion. (Compass.) One of the three elements of magnetic force which are registered at the observatories. The other elements are the declination and absolute intensity. The inclination or dip is the vertical angle of a freely suspended needle which it makes with the horizon. It has a general dependence upon the latitude, but varies from local causes. See Dippingneedle. Inclin-a-to′ri-um. The dipping-needle invented by Norman, of London. See dip
vels as ascertained by leveling during the progress of the survey, and such other details as are considered advisable, are represented by a peculiar system of shading and by symbols. The map is then ready to be transferred to copper, from which any number of copies may be printed. But a very small portion of the globe comparatively has been surveyed with an accuracy even approaching that above described. Africa, Asia, with the exception of British India, South America, a large part of North America, and even a considerable portion of Europe, afford no better data for the construction of maps than detached astronomical observations at different points and rudely measured or even estimated tables of distances. Points along the sea-coast have, owing to the requirements of commerce, been generally tolerably well determined, but our knowledge of the interior geography of several of the vast continents referred to is based largely upon mere report. Maps in relief were first produced
oma cacaoHot climatesThe cocoa-nibs of the shops. Used as a beverage. Afford an oil or butter which can be used for burning. CamelineCamelina sativaEurope, etcOil from the seeds. Used for burning in lamps. CandleberryMyrica ceriferaNorth and Central AmericaThe berries contain a wax-like matter, which is converted into candles, producing an aromatic odor as they burn. Myrica cordifoliaCape of G. Hope Candle-nutAleurites trilobaS. Sea IslandsSeeds contain oil Used for food and for burning RosemaryRosmarius officinalisEurope, etcTops of plant afford an oil. Used in perfumery, medicine, etc. Sandal-wood or santal-woodSantalumIndiaYields an essential oil heavier than water. Used in perfumery. Winter-greenGaultheria procumbens.North AmericaThe plant affords an essential oil. Used in medicine, perfumery, and for flavoring. The most ancient oil-mills are those used for mashing the olive. They were used in Palestine at a very early date. Although Solomon, A. D. 1015, supplie
ac, threadlac, blocklac. Used to make sealing-wax, glass-cement, varnishes, and for bodies of hats, etc. Butea frondosa MasticPistacia lentiscusScioUsed for varnish. Employed by dentists. Aromatic, astringent. MyrrhBalsamodendron myrrhShores of Red SeaUsed as an antispasmodic, stomachic, etc., and in toothpowder. Piney varnish(See Animi and Indian copal.) PitchPinus sylvestrisSweden, etcThe residuum of the distillation of pyroligneous acid from wood-tar. RosinPinus palustris, etcNorth America, etcThe residue left after the distillation of oil of turpentine SandarachCallitris quadrivalvisAlgiersUsed in varnishes. When powdered, affords pounce. Incense. ScammonyConvolvus scammoniaAsia MinorUsed as a purgative in medicine. Shellac(See Lac.) StoraxStyrax officinaleAsia MinorSoft; unctuous, and used as an expectorant. Common Name.Botanical Name.Native Place.Quality, Use, etc. Storax (liquid)LiquidumberUnited StatesFragrant; bitter; expectorant. Tar (wood)Pinus sylvest
vely recent times among the Scottish Highlanders and the inhabitants of the borders. From existing indications, fire telegraphy must have been extensively employed by the ancient mound-building race which preceded the Indians who inhabited North America when it first became known to Europeans. Throughout the West, notably in the Scioto and Miami Valleys, mounds of earth thrown up in elevated positions are found which were evidently designed for this purpose. The permanent nature of the for to 7 1/2 thalers per skin. Black cats were sold for 9 to 15 thalers per dozen. Of Russian and Siberian furs were offered 2,000,000 squirrels of all sorts, 160,000 ermine, 30,000 kolinsky, and 8,000 Siberian sables. Of the productions of North America, about 1,800 sea- otters were quickly bought up by several Russian merchants. About 80,000 beavers, 40,000 of which were reserved for the demand in England. There were also 3,000 Virginian polecats, 6,000 bear-skins, 220,000 raccoon-skins,
rd a yellow dye with alum mordant; the roots a red dye. Beech-barkFagus (various)Europe and North AmericaThe tannin yielded by this bark makes a white but inferior leather, and is used only in places where oak is scarce. BirchBetula (carious)Europe and North AmericaFor tanning Russia leather, the inner bark is much used, especially on account of the brown oil which it yields, to which this leaow dye. HeathsErica (various)EuropeSome kinds used in tanning. Hemlock barkAbies canadensisNorth AmericaIn union with oak-bark, is supposed to produce the best leather. Hemlock alone produces leatsed in dyeing. Especially to gibe morocco leather a yellow dye. QuercitronQuercus tinctoriaNorth AmericaA valuable yellow dye is obtained from the bark of the tree. SafflowerCarthamus tinctoriusInded to the Indians. Ancient specimens, buried in the soil, have been found in most parts of North America. So highly was the pipe prized by them, that the red pipe-stone quarry of the Coteau des Pr
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