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tury it was hardly borne in mind that the Venetian and his son had, in two successive years, reached the continent of North America, before Columbus came upon the low coast of Guiana. But England acquired through their energy such a right to North North America, as this indisputable priority could confer. The successors of Henry VII. recognised the claims of Spain and Portugal, only so far as they actually occupied the territories to which they laid pretension; and, at a later day, the English pare both in the library of Harvard College. was 1500 appointed commander of the enterprise. He reached the shores of North America, ranged the coast for a 1501. distance of six or seven hundred miles, and carefully observed the country and its inh, Viages Menores, III. 43, 44. and is, perhaps, the only permanent trace of Portuguese adventure within the limits of North America. The French entered without delay into the competition for the commerce and the soil of America. Within seven yea
lse victorious, they were driven for a time to abandon the soil of Florida, after it was wet with their blood. But under that name they continued to claim all North America, even as far as Newfoundland and Canada. No history exists of their early exploration of the coast, nor is even the name of the Spanish navigator preserved, wung French nobility, as well as by veteran troops. The feeble Charles IX. conceded an ample commission, and the Feb. 18. squadron set sail for the shores of North America. Desiring to establish their plantation in a genial clime, land was first made in the latitude of St. Augustine; the fine river which we call the St. Johns, self, the governor went on Sept. 8. shore, to take possession of the continent in the name of his king. The bigoted Philip II. was proclaimed monarch of all North America. The solemn mass of Our Lady was performed, and the foundation of St. Augustine was immediately laid. Laudonniere. They put their soldiers, victual, and mu
r fame was dimmed by that of Vasco de Gama, whose achievement made Lisbon the emporium of Europe. Thorne and Eliot, of Bristol, visited Newfoundland probably in 1502; in that year, savages in their wild attire were exhibited to the king; but North America as yet invited no colony, for it promised no sudden wealth, while the Indies more and more inflamed commercial cupidity. In March, 1501, Henry VII. granted an exclusive privilege of trade to a company composed half of Englishmen, half of Poeror. He obtained of the king a copy of the patent to his family, of which the original had been lost, but neither proposed new voyages to our shores nor cherished plans of colonization. He seemed to set no special value on his discovery of North America. To find a shorter route to the land of spices he had sailed in 1498 from Bristol; in 1527, had led forth a Spanish expedition, which reached La Plata and the Parana. Still haunted by the dream of his youth, he was again to fail, yet not wi
ns his name. Thus the cause of colonization obtained in England zealous and able defenders, who, independent of any party in religion or politics, believed that a prosperous state could be established by Englishmen in the temperate regions of North America. The king of England, too timid to be active, yet too Chap. IV.} 1606. vain to be indifferent, favored the design of enlarging his dominions. He had attempted in Scotland the introduction of the arts of life among the Highlanders and thad been explored by the Spaniards, and had been visited by Drake; the collections of Hakluyt had communicated to the English the results of their voyages; and the maps of that day exhibited a tolerably accurate delineation of the continent of North America. With singular ignorance of the progress of geographical knowledge, it had been expressly enjoined on the colonists to seek a communication with the South Sea by ascending some stream which flowed from the northwest. Stith, 43. The Chicka
shores of the Atlantic, or among the Indians of the Mississippi valley, Cortereal and Vasquez de Chap. V.} Ayllon, Porcallo and Soto, with private adventurers. whose names and whose crimes may be left unrecorded, transported the natives of North America into slavery in Europe and the Spanish West Indies. The glory of Columbus himself did not escape the stain; enslaving five hundred native Americans, he sent them 1494. to Spain, that they might be publicly sold at Seville. Irving's Colum49. of the slaves which the new kingdoms might contain. The slavery of Indians was 1501. recognized as lawful. See a cedula on a slave contract, in Navarette, III. 514, 515, given June 20, 1501. The practice of selling the natives of North America into foreign bondage continued for nearly two centuries; and even the sternest morality pronounced the sentence of slavery and exile on the captives whom the field of battle had spared. The excellent Winthrop enumerates Indians among his beq
d not quiet the ambition of Gorges. As a Protestant and an Englishman, he was almost a bigot, both in patriotism and in religion. Unwilling to behold the Roman Catholic church and the French monarch obtain possession of the eastern coast of North America, his first act with reference to the territory of the present state of Maine was, to invite the Scottish nation to become the guardians of its frontier. Sir William Alexander, the Chap. IX.} ambitious writer of turgid rhyming tragedies, a erable men, who were now but beggars for bread of their vanquishers. Yet the event might fairly be deemed of importance, as pregnant with consequences; and the English admiral could not but admire the position of the fortress. Not a port in North America remained to the French; from Long Island to the Pole, England Chap IX.} 1629 May. was without a rival. Memoires, in Hazard, i. 285—287. Charlevoix, i. 165, and ff. Compare, also, Haliburton's N. Scotia, i. 43. 46, &c. But before the