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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), America, discoverers of. (search)
e discovered and named Newfoundland. and found the treasures of codfishes in the waters near it. On Aug. 1 the same summer Columbus discovered the continent of South America, near the mouth of the Orinoco River. Americus Vespucius, a Florentine, and an agent of the de Medici family of Florence, was in Spain when the great discovy dated the time of his departure on his first voyage May 29, 1497, or a year or more Before Columbus and Cabot severally discovered the Continent of North and South America. In 1505 a narrative of his voyages to America was published at Strasburg, entitled Americus Vesputius de Orbe Antarcticozzz per Regum Portugalliaa Pridem Zzze rightful honor. See America, discovery of. In 1499, Vincent Yañez Pinzon sailed from Palos with his brother and four caravels, and, reaching the coast of South America, discovered the great river Amazon in the spring of 1500. Before Pinzon's return, Pedro Alvarez Cabral, sent by Emanuel, King of Portugal, while on an explori
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Americus Vespucius, 1451-1512 (search)
ontinent, and he was gratified when, in 1499, he sailed from Spain with Alonzo de Ojeda as an adventurer and self-constituted geographer of the expedition. Ojeda followed the track of Columbus in his third voyage, and discovered mountains in South America when off the coast of Surinam. He ran up the coast to the mouth of the Orinoco River (where Columbus had discovered the continent the year before), passed along the coast of Venezuela, crossed the Caribbean Sea to Santo Domingo, kidnapped soletter to the Duke of Lorraine, gave an account of his four voyages to the New World, in which was given the date of May 29, 1497, as the time when he sailed on his first voyage. That was a year earlier than the discovery of the continent of South America by Columbus and of North America by Cabot, and made it appear that Vespucius was the first discoverer. After the death of Columbus, in 1506, a friend of Vespucius proposed to the Academy of Cosmography at Strasburg, upon the authority of the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Anti-Expansionists, (search)
cannot be citizens without endangering our civilization; they cannot be subjects without imperilling our form of government, and as we are not willing to surrender our civilization or to convert the republic into an empire, we favor an immediate declaration of the nation's purpose to give to the Filipinos, first, a stable form of government; secondly, independence; and third, protection from outside interference, such as has been given for nearly a century to the republics of Central and South America. The greedy commercialism which dictated the Philippine policy of the Republican administration attempts to justify it with the plea that it will pay, but even this sordid and unworthy plea fails when brought to the test of facts. The war of criminal aggression against the Filipinos, entailing an annual expense of many millions, has already cost more than any possible profit that could accrue from the entire Philippine trade for years to come. Furthermore, when trade is extended at t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Antiquities, American. (search)
Antiquities, American. A greater portion of objects which constitute American antiquities consist of the architectural and other remains of the handiwork of the aborigines who inhabited the continent before any of the present races appeared here and subjugated or displaced them; also the ruins occasioned by the Spanish conquest. These are chiefly, in Central and South America, ruined temples, and, in North America, rude earthworks, now overgrown with venerable forest trees which attest their antiquity. In connection with those in the more southern regions, there are remains of elaborate carvings and ornamental pottery. There are many features in common between the temples and other works of art in Mexico, Central America, and Peru. The explorations of Stephens and Catherwood (1840-43) revealed to the world vast remains of cities in Central America, which were doubtless inhabited at the period of the conquest, 350 years ago. There they found carved monoliths and the remains o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Arnold, Samuel Greene, 1821-1880 (search)
Arnold, Samuel Greene, 1821-1880 Legislator and author; born in Providence, R. I., April 12, 1821. He was graduated at Brown University in 1841. After extensive travel in Europe, the East, and South America, he became, in 1852, lieutenant-governor of Rhode Island. In 1861 he took the field in command of a battery of artillery. He was lieutenant-governor, 1861-62, and United States Senator in 1863. He was the author of a History of Rhodc Island. He died in Providence, Feb. 12, 1880.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bastidas, Rodriguez de, (search)
Bastidas, Rodriguez de, Explorer; born about 1460. With Juan de la Cosa, he sailed towards the Western Continent with two ships in 1502, and discovered the coast of South America from Cape de Vela to the Gulf of Darien. Ojeda, with Americus Vespucius, went in the same course soon afterwards, ignorant of this expedition of Bastidas, touched at the same places, and proceeded to Hispaniola, or Santo Domingo. He founded the city of St. Martha, in New Grenada; was wounded in an uprising of his people; and died soon afterwards in Santo Domingo, whither he had fled.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Buccaneers, the, (search)
e sea. They extended their operations. The French buccaneers made their Headquarters in Santo Domingo, and the English in Jamaica, during the long war between France and Spain (1635-60) and afterwards; and they were so numerous and bold that Spanish commerce soon declined, and Spanish ships dared not venture to America. Finding their own gains diminishing from want of richly laden vessels to plunder, they ceased pillaging vessels, and attacked and plundered Spanish towns on the coast of Central and South America. A number of these were seized, and immense treasures were carried away in the form of plunder or ransom. At Carthagena, in 1697, they procured $8,000,000. Their operations were finally broken up by an alliance against them of the English, Dutch, and Spanish governments. Exasperated at the conduct of the Spaniards in Florida, the Carolinas were disposed to give the buccaneers assistance in plundering then; and in 1684-9)3 they were sheltered in the harbor of Charleston
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cabot 1476-1557 (search)
returned to England. Henry VIII furnished Cabot with a vessel, in 1517, to seek for a northwest passage to India; but he unsuccessfully fought the ice-pack at Hudson Bay and was foiled. The successor of Ferdinand invited Cabot to Spain and made him chief pilot of the realm. He was employed by Spanish merchants to command an expedition to the Spice Islands by way of the then newly discovered Strait of Magellan; but circumstances prevented his going farther than the southeast coast of South America, where he discovered the rivers De la Plata and Paraguay. His employers were disappointed, and, resigning his office into the hands of the Spanish monarch, he returned to England in his old age, and was pensioned by the King. After the death of Henry VIII. the boy King, Edward VI., made Cabot grand pilot of England; but Queen Mary neglected him, and allowed that eminent navigator and discoverer of the North American continent to die in London in comparative poverty and obscurity at th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), California (search)
in that Pacific coast province speedily ended in victory for the Americans in 1847. By the treaty of peace at Guadalupe Hidalgo (q. v.), California and other territory were ceded to the United States. In the month of February 1848, gold was discovered in California, on the Sacramento River, by John W. Marshall, who was working for John A. Sutter (q. v.), and as the news spread abroad, thousands of enterprising and energetic men flocked thither, not only from the United States, but from South America, Europe, and China, to secure the precious metal. Very soon there was a mixed population of all sorts of characters in California of at least 250,000 persons. The military governor called a convention to meet at Monterey, Sept. 1, 1849, to frame a State constitution. One was formed by which slavery was to be excluded from the new State; and this document revived in Congress, in great intensity, debates on the subject of slavery in 1849-50. See Kearny, Stephen Watts; Stockton, Rober
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Central America, (search)
Central America, A large expanse of territory connecting North and South America, and comprising in 1901 the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The region was discovered by Columbus, in his fourth voyage, in 1502. He found the bay of Honduras, where he landed; then proceeded along the main shore to Cape Gracias a Dios; and thence to the Isthmus of Darien, hoping, but in vain, to obtain a passage to the Pacific Ocean. At the isthmus he found a harbor, and, on account of its beauty and security, he called it Porto Bello. At another place in that country, on the Dureka River, he began a settlement with sixty-eight men; but they were driven off by a warlike tribe of Indians—the first repulse the Spaniards had ever met with. But for this occurrence, caused by the rapacity and cruelty of the Spaniards, Columbus might have had the honor of planting the first European colony on the continent of America. In 1509 Alonzo de Ojeda, with 300 soldier
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