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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chesapeake, (search)
the President's proclamation should be withdrawn, the matter was left open more than four years. In 1811 the British government disavowed the act. Barron, found guilty of neglect of duty in not being prepared for the attack, was suspended from the service for five years, without pay or emolument. While the Hornet, Captain Lawrence, was on her homeward-bound voyage with her large number of prisoners, the Chesapeake was out on a long cruise to the Cape de Verde Islands, and the coast of South America. She accomplished nothing except the capture of four British merchant vessels; and as she entered Boston Harbor, in the spring of 1813, in a gale, her topmast was carried away, and with it several men who were aloft, three of whom were drowned. Among the superstitious sailors she acquired the character of an unlucky ship, and they were loath to embark in her. Evans was compelled to leave her on account of the loss of the sight of one of his eyes; and Lawrence, who had been promoted t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chinese-American reciprocity. (search)
to compete with the fabrics of Manchester. The silk manufacturers of Paterson would stand small chance of supplanting the finished products of Lyons. The sugar of Louisiana would encounter a formidable rival in the beet-sugar of Germany. England could probably better afford to sell her coal and iron cheaper than Pennsylvania, and Russia could supply European markets with wheat and petroleum as well as could Ohio and Indiana. Competition would be keen and destructive. Central and South America have as yet too sparse a population for the immense territory they cover to meet the conditions of a market for American goods. Some decades must elapse before American farmers and manufacturers can look to that quarter for relief. But on the other side of the Pacific lies the vast empire of China, which in extent of territory and density of population exceeds the whole of Europe. To be more particular, the province of Szechuen can muster more able-bodied men than the German Empire.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Clay, Henry 1777-1852 (search)
5-29), and again a member of the United States Senate from 1831 till 1842. He was twice defeated as a candidate for the Presidency (1832 and 1844); and was in the Senate for the last time from 1849 till 1852, taking a leading part in the compromise measures of 1850, as he did in those of 1832. Mr. Clay did much by his eloquence to arouse a war spirit against Great Britain in 1812; and his efforts were effective in securing an acknowledgment of the independence of the Spanish colonies in South America. He always advocated the thoroughly American policy of President Monroe in excluding European influence on this continent. He died in Washington, D. C., June 29, 1852. The secret history of Clay's Compromise Bill in 1832, which quieted rampant nullification, seems to be as follows: Mr. Calhoun, as leader of the nullifiers, had proceeded to the verge of treason in his opposition to the national government, and President Jackson had threatened him with arrest if he moved another step
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Columbus, Christopher 1435-1536 (search)
purposes and to bring him into disrepute. He calmly met their opposition by reason, and often confused them by simple illustrations. He had already, by his success, silenced the clamor of the ignorant and superstitious priesthood about the unscriptural and irreligious character of his proposition, and finally, on May 30, 1498, Columbus sailed from San Lucar de Barrameda, with six ships, on his third voyage of discovery. He took a more southerly course, and discovered the continent of South America on Aug. 1, at the mouth of the river Orinoco, which he supposed to be one of the rivers flowing out of Eden. Having discovered several islands and the coast of Para, he finally went to Hispaniola to recruit his enfeebled health. The colony was in great disorder, and his efforts to restore order caused him to be made the victim of jealousy and malice. He was misrepresented at the Spanish Court, and Francisco de Bobadilla was sent from Spain to inquire into the matter. He was ambitious
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Commerce of the United States. (search)
reased during that time from $95,000,000 to $202,000,000. From South America the imports increased from $101,000,000 in 1890 to $102,000,000 in 1900, while to South America the exports increased from $35,000,000 to $41,000,000. From Asia the imports into the United States increasethe latter being presumably re-exported thence to Europe. From South America the imports increased in quantity, especially in coffee and rub2,585,856 $1,111,456,000 North America 95,517,863 202,486,000 South America 34,722,122 41,384,000 Asia 22,854,028 60,598.000 Oceanica 17,474,656,257 $439,500,000 North America151,490,330 131,200,000 South America100,959,799 102,000,000 Asia 68,340,309 122,800,000 Oceanica 2ed in another part. The great fertile plains of North America, South America, Australia, and Russia have become the world's producers of graes of our inland seas; a great railway system will stretch from South America to Bering Straits, thence down the eastern coast of Siberia, th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Confederate privateers (search)
matter (Feb. 18, 1862), but nothing was done. She went to a British port of the Bahamas, and ran the blockade at Mobile, under British colors, with a valuable cargo. Her name was changed to Florida, and she was placed in charge of a late officer of the United States navy (John Newland Maffit), and again went to sea in December. the Florida hovered most of the time off the American coast, closely watched, everywhere leaving a track of desolation behind her. She ran down to the coast of South America, and, alarmed at the presence of a National vessel of war, ran in among the Brazilian fleet in the harbor of Bahia. Captain Collins, of the Wachusett, ran in (Oct. 7, 1864), boarded the Florida, lashed her to his vessel, and bore her to Hampton Roads, Va., where she was sunk. The most famous of the Anglo-Confederate vessels was the Alabama, built by Laird and commanded by Raphael Semmes, who had been captain of the Sumter. Her career is elsewhere related (see Alabama). The career of th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Consular service, the (search)
ce valuations, nor acquire a thorough knowledge of the people among whom he lives and of their methods of business, unless he be able to speak the language of the country and live there a number of years. Nevertheless, in Mexico, Central and South America, where we are supposed, and certainly ought, to exercise a greater influnece than any other power, we require of our consuls neither a prolonged residence nor a knowledge of the Spanish language. The following incidents will help to showate (to be fixed by Congress) should be compelled to pass an examination in (1) the English language, (2) arithmetic, (3) commercial law, and (4) one or two foreign languages, either French, German, or Spanish (with a view to our interests in South America), to be compulsory, and the examination therein rigid. Successful candidates should be appointed vice-consuls. Each original appointment as viceconsul and each subsequent promotion must be made by the President and confirmed by the Senate
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Drake, Sir Francis, -1595 (search)
der Captain Hawkins, in 1567. The fleet was nearly destroyed in an attack by the Spaniards at San Juan de Ulloa (near Vera Cruz), and Drake returned to England stripped of all his property. The Spanish government refused to indemnify him for his losses, and he sought revenge and found it. Queen Elizabeth gave him a commission in the royal navy, and in 1572 he sailed from Plymouth with two ships for the avowed purpose of plundering the Spaniards. He did so successfully on the coasts of South America, and returned in 1573 with greater wealth than he ever possessed before. Drake was welcomed as a hero; he soon won the title honorably by circumnavigating the globe. He had seen from a mountain on Darien the waters of the Pacific Ocean, and resolved to explore them. Under the patronage of the Queen, he sailed from Plymouth in December, 1577; passed through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean; pillaged the Spanish settlements on the coasts of Peru and Chile, and a Spanish gal
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Eckford, Henry, 1775- (search)
Eckford, Henry, 1775- Naval constructor; born in Irvine, Scotland, March 12, 1775; learned his profession with an uncle at Quebec, began business for himself in New York in 1796, and soon took the lead in his profession. During the War of 1812-15 he constructed ships-of-war on the Lakes with great expedition and skill; and soon after the war he built the steamship Robert Fulton, in which, in 1822, he made the first successful trip in a craft of that kind to New Orleans and Havana. Made naval constructor at Brooklyn in 1820, six ships-of-the-line were built after his models. Interference of the board of naval commissioners caused him to leave the service of the government, but he afterwards made ships-of-war for European powers and for the independent states of South America. In 1831 he built a war-vessel for the Sultan of Turkey, and, going to Constantinople, organized a navy-yard there, and there he died, Nov. 12, 1832.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Electricity in the nineteenth century. (search)
tinghouse Company, also entered the field and became prominent factors in railway extension. In a few years horse traction in the United States on tramway lines virtually disappeared. While the United States and Canada have been and still are the theatre of the enormous advance in electric traction, as in other electric work, many electric car lines have in recent years been established in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Countries like Japan, Australia, South Africa, and South America have also in operation many electric trolley lines, and the work is rapidly extending. Most of this work, even in Europe, has been carried out either by importation of equipment from America, or by apparatus manufactured there, but following American practice closely. In Chicago the application of motorcars in trains upon the elevated railway followed directly upon the practical demonstration at the World's Fair of the capabilities of third-rail electric traction on the Intramural El
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