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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fremont, John Charles 1813-1890 (search)
before, felt the exultation of first explorers. It was about two o'clock when we left the summit; and, when we reached the bottom, the sun had already sunk behind the wall, and the day was drawing to a close. It would have been pleasant to have lingered here and on the summit longer; but we hurried away as rapidly as the ground would permit, for it was an object to regain our party as soon as possible, not knowing what accident the next hour might bring forth. We reached our deposit of provisions at nightfall. Here was not the inn which awaits the tired traveller on his return from Mont Blanc, or the orange groves of South America, with their refreshing juices and soft, fragrant air; but we found our little cache of dried meat and coffee undisturbed. Though the moon was bright, the road was full of precipices, and the fatigue of the day had been great. We therefore abandoned the idea of rejoining our friends, and lay down on the rock, and in spite of the cold slept soundly.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garfield, James Abram 1831-1881 (search)
ding pecuniary aid. The subject, however, is one which will immediately engage the attention of the government with a view to a thorough protection to American interests. We will urge no narrow policy nor seek peculiar or exclusive privileges in any commercial route; but, in the language of my predecessor, I believe it to be the right and duty of the United States to assert and maintain such supervision and authority over any interoceanic canal across the isthmus that connects North and South America as will protect our national interests. The Constitution guarantees absolute religious freedom. Congress is prohibited from making any law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The Territories of the United States are subject to the direct legislative authority of Congress, and hence the general government is responsible for any violation of the Constitution in any of them. It is therefore a reproach to the government that in the most po
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Garibaldi, Giuseppe 1807-1882 (search)
Garibaldi, Giuseppe 1807-1882 Patriot; born at Nice, Italy, July 4, 1807; because of his political opinions was driven into exile in 1834, and went to South America, where he was employed in the service first of the republic of Rio Grande do Sul, and subsequently in that of Uruguay, in 1836-48. Returning to Italy, he entered the service of the Roman republic in 1849, and supreme command was given to him and to General Roselli. The grand defence of Rome against French intervention in 1849 was due principally to his tact and bravery. After this cause became hopeless, in 1850, he came to the United States, where he became a naturalized citizen, and where for about three years he followed the occupation of a soap-boiler on Staten Island. In 1854 he returned to Italy, and purchased the northern part of Caprera, where he remained until 1859, when he organized and commanded an independent corps, known as the Hunters Giuseppe Garibaldi. of the Alps, in the Sardinian service during
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), General Armstrong, the (search)
and letters-of-marque within 120 days after the declaration of war (1812), carrying about 200 pieces of artillery, and manned by over 2,000 seamen. Among the most noted of these privateers was the General Armstrong, a moderatesized schooner, mounting a Long Tom 42-pounder and eighteen carronades. Her complement was 140 men; her first commander was Captain Barnard; her second, Capt. G. R. Champlin. Early in March, 1813, while Champlin was cruising off the Surinam River, on the coast of South America, he gave chase to the British sloop-of-war Coquette, mounting twenty-seven guns and manned by 126 men and boys. They engaged in conflict between nine and ten o'clock (March 11, 1813). Supposing his antagonist to be a British letter-of-marque, Champlin ran the Armstrong down upon her, with the intention of boarding her. When it was too late, Champlin discovered that she was a heavier vessel than he suspected. They poured heavy shot into each other, and for a while the fight was very obs
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gould, Benjamin Apthorp 1824-1896 (search)
ervatory by telegraph. He later greatly improved this clock, which is now used in all parts of the world. In 1868 he organized and directed the national observatory at Cordoba, in the Argentine Republic. He there mapped out a large part of the Benjamin A. Gould. southern heavens. He also organized a national meteorological office, which was connected with branch stations extending from the tropics to Terra del Fuego, and from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic. He returned from South America in 1885, and died in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 26, 1896. His publications include Investigations in the military and Anthropological statistics of American soldiers; Investigations of the orbit of comet V.; Report of the discovery of the planet Neptune; Discussions of observations made by the United States astronomical expedition to Chile to determine the solar Parallax; The transatlantic longitude as determined by the coast survey; Uranometry of the Southern heavens; Ancestry of Zaccheus
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hamilton, Alexander 1757- (search)
have the most plausible pretensions unsound and delusive. There ought, for instance, according to those which have been stated, to have been formerly a greater quantity of gold in proportion to silver in the United States than there has been, because the actual value of gold in this country compared with silver was perhaps higher than in any other. But our situation with regard to the West Indian Islands, into some of which there is a large influx of silver directly from the mines of South America, occasions an extraordinary supply of that metal, and consequently a greater proportion of it in our circulation than might have been expected from its relative value. What influence the proportion under consideration may have upon the state of prices and how far this may counteract its tendency to increase or lessen the quantity of the metals, are points not easy to be developed; and yet they are very necessary to an accurate judgment of the true operation of the thing. But, how
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Imperialism. (search)
during a snow-storm, the palisades and wigwams were fired, and the Indians were driven forth by the flames to be either burned, suffocated, frozen, butchered, or drowned in the surrounding swamp. History says that 500 wigwams were destroyed, 600 warriors killed, 1,000 women and children massacred, and the winter's provisions of the tribe reduced to ashes. The government set a price of 30s. per head for every Indian killed in battle, and many women and children were sold into slavery in South America and the West Indies. Towards the last, Captain Church, the noted Indian fighter, headed an expedition to find Philip and destroy the remainder of the Wampanoags. Philip was hunted from place to place, and at last found in camp on Aug. 12, 1676. The renegade Indian who betrayed the Narraganset camp led Captain Church to the camp of Philip. The attack was made at night, while the Indians were asleep. Philip, in attempting to escape, was recognized by an Indian ally of the whites and s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indians, American (search)
ll the nations of the adjacent islands and the continent. Origin. There is no positive knowledge concerning the origin of the aborigines of America; their own traditions widely vary, and conjecture is unsatisfying. Recent investigations favor a theory that, if they be not indigenous, they came from two great Asiatic families: the more northern tribes of our continent from the lighter Mongolians, who crossed at Bering Strait, and the more southerly ones, in California, Central and South America, from the darker Malays, who first peopled Polynesia, in Indian War-clubs. the southern Pacific Ocean and finally made their way to our continent, gradually spreading over it from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Language fails to connect any of them with the Asiatic families, but their traditions, implements, and modes of life point to such a relationship. It has been suggested Indian grave-post. that the Mandans and Chinooks, who are almost white, are descendants of a Welsh colony
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lummis, Charles Fletcher 1859- (search)
Lummis, Charles Fletcher 1859- Author; born in Lynn, Mass., March 1, 1859; was educated at Harvard College; walked from Cincinnati to Los Angeles, Cal., in 1884. This trip of 3,507 miles was made purely for pleasure and was accomplished in 143 days. He was editor of the Los Angeles Daily times, 1885-87. He lived for a number of years in an Indian village in New Mexico, became familiar with the manners and customs of the natives, and has travelled extensively in the Southwest, Mexico, and South America. In 1894 he established in Los Angeles The land of sunshine, a monthly periodical. Among his publications are The land of Poco Tiempo; The Spanish pioneers; The man who married the Moon; The gold Fish of the Grand Chimu; A New Mexico David, etc.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), McKinley, William 1843- (search)
interest and success. To the commissioners of the dominion of Canada and the British colonies, the French colonies, the republics of Mexico and of Central and South America, and the commissioners of Cuba and Porto Rico, who share with us in this undertaking, we give the hand of fellowship and felicitate with them upon the triumphs of steamers have already been put in commission between the Pacific coast ports of the United States and those on the western coasts of Mexico and Central and South America. These should be followed up with direct steamship lines between the eastern coast of the United States and South American ports. One of the needs of the time. We must build the isthmian canal, which will unite the two oceans, and give a straight line of water communication with the western coasts of Central and South America and Mexico. The construction of a Pacific cable cannot be longer postponed. In the furtherance of these objects of national interest and concern you are pe
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