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sing them between two elastic bands of India-rubber, traversing side by side in the same direction, at different velocities. Almonds came from Persia, and were introduced into England, 1570. Almu-can′ter staff. An instrument having an are of 15°, formerly used to obtain observations of the sun's amplitude at the time of its rising and setting, to find the variation of the compass. Al-pacA. (Fabric.) a. A cloth in which the wool of the alpaca (a species of the Hama, inhabiting Peru) is combined with wool, silk, or cotton. b. A soft dress-goods, an imitation of the former; having a cotton chain and woolen filling, plain color and highly finished surface. Al′pha-bet Tel′e-graph. An apparatus which marks symbols on paper by pressure, as Morse's; or by chemical action, as Bain's; or impresses type on paper, as House's or Hughes's; in contradistinction to one whose indications are observed by the fluctuating position of a needle or needles, as Cooke and Wheatstone
e, and are found in Pompeii. A glass bottle with a capacity of 112 gallons was blown at Leith, in Scotland, about 1747. Fig. 825 shows an earthen bottle from Peru, with two faces. The sectional view shows the shape of the neck and handle. Earthenware bottles. Fig. 826 shows a number of ancient bottles. a b c are f are of excellent quality. Those of China are faced with porcelain, and in Nepaul they are ornamented by the encaustic process and in relief. The conquerors of Peru found the art of brickmaking in a flourishing condition in the Empire of the Incas, and both there and among the more northerly countries of Yucatan and Mexico, wefleet of Marcellus at Syracuse. Each concave mirror was separately hinged, and they were brought to bear in combination upon the object in the common focus. In Peru, previous to the Spanish Conquest, the rays of the sun were collected in a concave mirror and fire kindled thereby. Besides the familiar instance of the burning
he example the coop is provided with a metallic open-work endpiece, provided with sliding doors connected together so as to be opened simultaneously. The broods are protected by closing these slidingdoors at night. Chicken-coop. Chick′en-rais′--ing Appa-ra′tus. An incubator (which see). Child's Car′--riage. A small carriage adapted for children's uses, being drawn or pushed by an attendant. Chil′i — an mill. From time immemorial the ores of Mexico, Central America, and Peru have been worked, and the processes yet used in some of the more remote districts are rude and wasteful or exceeding slow. The Chilian mill and arrastra are specimens of the latter. A in the accompanying cut shows the adaptation of water-power as a motor for the primitive mill of Central America, the arrangements being of a massive and rude description. B shows a more modern form of the same device. Chilian mill. The modern form of the Chilian mill in its application to the grind
with the lark uprose, Measuring the shadow of the morning sun, Which gave a shade of twenty feet and two. Off to his host he went, and pardon begged For having been detained by business; A man who came at daybreak to his dinner! The gnomons of Peru disgusted the invading Spanish, who, of course, had never bowed to images One obelisk at Quito was in the center of a circle, on which was marked an east and west line indicating the equinox. The ruthless conquerors thought it was an idol, and diwith a hook at the end, by which an assistant aids in supporting the crucible, by catching hold of the shoulder of the crucible-tongs. Gua′no-sow′er. Guano is the excrement of sea-birds collected in thick beds on some islands on the coast of Peru, and in some other places. Its use is no new thing. The Peruvians before the conquest used guano in the cultivation of the potato, tobacco, corn, and other piants for which Europe is indebted to this side of the Atlantic. An English cruiser in
proper position of B′ at the right of the portion B, which is a plan of the machinery at the head of the incline. The steam cylinders are 32 inches in diameter, and 7 feet stroke. The drums make 32 revolutions in a minute, the velocity of the rope being 1,400 feet per minute. Some magnificent engineering works are to be found among the mountain regions of the world, where the grades are ascended by inclined planes. Among these may be cited some on the Callao, Lima, and Oroya Railway in Peru. The annexed engraving shows portions at Surco, the Parac, and San Bartolome, respectively. They are not air lines by any means. The grades are from 2 1/2 to 4 per cent (211 feet to the mile); curves are limited to 400 feet radius. Plan of inclined planes on the Callao, Lima, and Oroya Railway, Peru. Mr. Meiggs is doing a great work. The western slope of the Andes at this point has no timber, nor for fifty miles on the east side. Oroya is thirty miles east of the summit tunnel,
ton more uniform, by moderating its velocity at the end of the stroke. Lead-bath. A process for the extraction of gold or silver from comminuted ore by exposing it mechanically to molten lead, with which it forms an alloy. The subsequent separation is by cupellation or, with silver, by Pattinson's process. See infra. In reducing silver ores, the ancient Peruvians mixed them with galena or lead in portable ovens. It is still practiced in that country. Quicksilver was well known in Peru among the Incas, but was used to make the pigment vermilion, not to amalgamate the precious metals. Hawks writes, A. D. 1572, that the process of amalgamating silver ores with mercury is being substituted for melted lead. See amalgamator. In Bursile's English patent, February 12, 1853, the ore is treated with an amalgam formed by the union of quicksilver in a readily fusible alloy of lead and bismuth, or lead, bismuth, and tin. Lead-bath for precious ores. In Fuller's apparatus,
of an are of the meridian have been made by the Chaldeans, by Eratosthenes, by Al Maimon, by Pire, and more lately by the French, English, Germans, and others; in Peru, Lapland, British India, and elsewhere. (See armil ; armillary-sphere ; astronomical instruments ; odometer.) We regard Eratosthenes with profound respect as the and were celebrated in the time of Pliny. The mines of Idria, the Palatinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich. The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili. In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, or the blocks of oryed for a module or standard at 10° Reaumur or 54° Fah. In deducing the length of the quadrant of the meridian, the are measured by Bouguer and La Condamine in Peru, in 1736, was taken as an element. More recent and extended measurements at different points of the earth's surface indicate that the data upon which the metric d
rence. Some previous measurements are mentioned under armil (which see). Hipparchus of Nicaeea in Bithynia, 162 B. C., laid down a map by the determination of the latitude and longitude of places. A degree was measured on the shores of the Red Sea by the Khalif al Maimoun, the son of Haroun al Raschid, about A. D. 820. The exact determination of the length of a degree was considered of so much importance that, in 1735, the Academy of Sciences of Paris dispatched two commissions, one to Peru, the other to Lapland. The latter party accomplished their mission and returned in 16 months; the former party, after contending with great hardships for 10 years, accomplished their mission, as Frenchmen in pursuit of an idea will do, if anybody can. Since the work of the French Academicians, measurements have been taken in India, France, England, Hanover, Lithmania, and Sweden. One curious discovery resulted, as stated by Sir John Herschel: — The earth is not exactly an ellipsoid o
dnance.) A mortar for firing salutes. Pa′ter-nos′ter — pump. A chain-pump. So named from a fancied resemblance of the buttons on the chain to the beads of the rosary. The latter is an old invention of Central Asia, used by the Boodhists. See chain-pump. Pa′ter-nos′ter-wheel. A water-raising device having a number of buckets on a chain. Named from its resemblance to the rosary. See noria; chain-wheel. Patio-process. The patio-process of amalgamation is practiced in Peru and Mexico. A patio, or amalgamation, floor, is a large paved area, walled around to contain the fortas, or flat, circular heaps of ground ore, salt, magistral, etc., which are tramped by horses, treated by mercury, etc., as described under amalgamator, page 75 (which see). The process was invented by Medina in 1557, and was introduced into Nevada with but indifferent success. Pat′ten. 1. A clog or sole of wood mounted on a frame to raise the feet of a person above a wet or muddy
are considered but slight impediments, except so far as interfering with speed. The Union Pacific crosses the summit ridge of the Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 8,460 feet; and the highest point on the railroad between Arequipa and Puno in Peru is 14,586 feet above the sea. The length of the Panama Railway from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean is nearly 48 miles; the summit ridge is 287 feet above the mean tide of the Atlantic. The distance from New York to Hongkong via Cape Horn isd the works commenced to decay. At a comparatively late date the work of improvement of the Indian roads has been pursued with vigor. The Grand Trunk Road connects Calcutta with Peshawur on the borders of Affghanistan. The military roads of Peru were built, one on the plateau, the other on the shore. The former, for nearly 2,000 miles, crossed sierras, gorges, and rivers, by tunnels, bridges, and ferries. The road was 20 feet wide, faced with flags covered with bitumen, and had mileston
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