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September 19, 1833, at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. Came to Louisville October 4th. Maria Preston Johnston was born October 28, 1833, and returned to her Maker the 10th of the following August. The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away. Blessed be the name of the Lord. In Louisville the physicians pronounced Mrs. Johnston's lungs affected, and, according to the prevailing practice, bled her freely and often, and confined her diet to such insufficient nourishment as goat's milk and Iceland moss. Of course, no more effectual way could have been adopted to produce pulmonary consumption in an enfeebled constitution. She was carefully and tenderly nursed by her mother and friends in Louisville, and her husband deceived himself with the hope that travel and a change of climate, and his own untiring care, might restore her. Accordingly, on March 4, 1834, they made a journey to New Orleans, from which they returned the 8th of May. During their stay in New Orleans they were the gu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), America, discoverers of. (search)
ers of. About the year 860 Noddodr, an illustrious se(arover, driven by a storm. discovered Iceland, and named it Snowland. Not many years afterwards Earl Ingolf, of Norway, sought Iceland as a Iceland as a refute from tyranny. and planted a colony there. Greenland was discovered by accident. One of the early settlers in Iceland was driven westward on the sea by a storm, and discovered Greenland. ToIceland was driven westward on the sea by a storm, and discovered Greenland. To that retreat Eric the Red was compelled to fly from Iceland, and, finding it more fertile than the latter. named it Greenland, made it his place of abode, and attracted other Northmen thither. AmoIceland, and, finding it more fertile than the latter. named it Greenland, made it his place of abode, and attracted other Northmen thither. Among Eric's followers was a Norwegian, whose son Bjarni, or Biarne, a promising young man, trading between Norway and Iceland, and finding his father gone with Eric, proposed to his crew to go to his pIceland, and finding his father gone with Eric, proposed to his crew to go to his parent in Greenland. They were driven westward, and, it is believed, they saw the American continent in the year 986. The sons of Eric heard the stories of Bjarni, and one of them, Lief, sailed in s
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Columbus, Christopher 1435-1536 (search)
a sphere, and that Asia might be reached by sailing westward from Europe. He laid plans for explorations, and, in 1474, communicated them to the learned Florentine cosmographer, Paul Toscanelli, who gave him an encouraging answer, and sent him a map constructed partly from Ptolemy's and partly from descriptions of Farther India by Marco Polo, a Venetian traveller who told of Cathay (China) and Zipango (Japan) in the twelfth century. In 1477, Columbus sailed northwest from Portugal beyond Iceland to lat. 73°, when pack-ice turned him back; and it is believed that he went southward as far as the coast of Guinea. Unable to fit out a vessel for himself, it is stated that he first applied for aid, but in vain, to the Genoese. With like ill-success he applied to King John of Portugal, who favored his suit, but priests and professors interposed controlling objections. The King, however, sent a caravel ostensibly with provisions for the Cape Verde Islands, but with secret instructions
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Horsford, Cornelia 1861- (search)
Horsford, Cornelia 1861- Archaeologist; born in Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 25, 1861; daughter of Eben Norton Horsford; received a private school education in Boston and Cambridge; and in 1893 engaged in archaeological researches. She sent out expeditions to Iceland in 1895, and to the British Isles in 1895, 1896, and 1897; is a member of numerous associations; and author of Graves of the Northmen; Greenland and Vinland; and Vinland and its ruins.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Northmen, the (search)
of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—were called Northmen. They were famous navigators, and, in the ninth century, discovered Iceland and Greenland. In the tenth century a colony led by Eric the Red was planted in the latter country (983). It is said ths young wife took his body back to Eric's house. During the next summer Thorfinn Karlsefui, a rich Norwegian living in Iceland, went to Greenland, fell in love with the young widow, Gudrida, and, with his bride and 160 persons (five of them young a son, whom they named Snorre, who became the progenitor of Albert Thorwaldsen, the great Danish sculptor. Returning to Iceland, Thorfinn died there, and his widow and her son went, in turn, on a pilgrimage to Rome. Icelandic manuscripts mention verica. A remarkable structure yet standing at Newport, R. I., Is supposed by some to have been erected by the Northmen. Bishop Thorlack, of Iceland, a descendant of Gudrida, compiled a record of the voyages of the Northmen from the old chronicle
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Tyrker, (search)
Tyrker, The German foster-father of Leif the Scandinavian, whom he accompanied in the expedition from Iceland to the land south of Greenland in the year 1000. While exploring the neighborhood Tyrker reported the discovery of vines loaded with grapes, which caused Leif to call the country Vinland.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), United States of America. (search)
Hui Shen's account of the Buddhist mission referred to in the Chinese annals for......499 Iceland discovered by Nadodd, a Norse rover......861 First settlement by Norsemen......875 Grumbi.....876 Land discovered by Eric the Red, and named Greenland......982 Second voyage from Iceland to Greenland by Eric......985 Bjarni sails from Iceland for Greenland, but is driven south bIceland for Greenland, but is driven south by a storm and sights land at Cape Cod or Nantucket, also at Newfoundland, and returns to Greenland......985 Voyage of Lief, son of Eric the Red. He sails in one ship with thirty-five men in searchyal library at Copenhagen, found in a monastery on the island of Flato, on the western coast of Iceland.] Eskimos appear in Greenland......1349 Pizigani's map of the Atlantic......1367-73 Ni.1427 era of permanent discovery Columbus born......1435-36 (?) 1445 Visits England and Iceland prior to......1470 Columbus in Portugal......1470-84 Marco Polo's travels first printed.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Vinland (search)
sation. In speaking of the Scandinavian countries, in his book, Adam describes the colonies in Iceland and Greenland, and says that there is another country or island beyond, which is called VinlandAt that time the people of Greenland were heathen. Biarni arrived with his ship at Eyrar [in Iceland] in the summer of the same year, in the spring of which his father had sailed away. Biarni was withered but little. The days and nights there were of more equal length than in Greenland or Iceland. On the shortest day of winter the sun was up between eyktarstad and dagmalastad. When they ht distinguished men of Norway. The following spring he put his ship in order for the voyage to Iceland; and when all his preparations had been made, and his ship was lying at the wharf, awaiting fav mosur, come from Wineland. Karlsefni sailed away, and arrived with his ship in the north of Iceland, in Skagafirth. His vessel was beached there during the winter, and in the spring he bought Gl
ng angle for any medium is the index of refraction for that medium. The phenomenon of double refraction, exhibited by Iceland spar (crystallized carbonate of lime), is a familiar one. If any small object be placed in contact with a piece of thy was discovered by Sir David Brewster. When Huyghens was occupied with the double refraction of light in crystals of Iceland spar, i. e. with the separation of the pencils of light into two parts, he also discovered, in 1678, that kind of polarie in examining the properties of polarized light. Its action depends on the doubly-refracting property of the material (Iceland spar) of which it is composed. On viewing a small object, such as a black dot on a sheet of paper through a piece of Iceland spar or of selenite, two images will be seen; on turning the spar around, one of these images will appear to revolve about the other. The fixed image is called the ordinary, and the other the extraordinary image; the line joining them is a
s ledgers to rest on the pullogs. 4. A pole lashed to a disabled carriage as a substitute for a wheel. 5. (Mining.) An earthy, lustrous mineral, which is often associated with ores, such as lead, copper, and tin, forming the gangue or matrix of the ore. It is known among miners by its characteristic color, as white spar, black spar, etc. The word has many interesting mineralogical significations, such as fluor spar, a beautiful, crystalline fluoride of lime, the double-refracting Iceland spar, etc., etc. Spar′a-drap. A cast-iron nail driven into soles of boots and shoes, and so called from its resemblance in shape to a sparrow-bill. (Pharmacy.) An adhesive plaster spread upon linen or paper. Spar-a-dra′pi-er. (Pharmacy.) A machine for spreading plasters. It is a table with two raised pieces, movable and furnished with points by which the cloth may be stretched, and a spatula for spreading the composition. Spar-deck. (Nautical.) Originally on
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