he independence of the pope,
Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, III. 345. he was crowned at Rome as the first holy
Chap. II.} Roman emperor of the German nation.
Invited only as a liberator, he, like Charlemagne, made himself the master alike over the church and the state.
But he could not renew the authority of Charlemagne; for he in no wise represented universal monarchy.
Kingdoms collectively greater than his own, and independent of him,—Hungary, France, Spain, Portugal, England,—could never acknowledge his supremacy over a church which claimed to be catholic.
Yet, as if his twofold dominion had been permanent, Otho sought to balance the power of his princely feudatories by that of the bishops, who were likewise bound to send vassals to his army.
The annexation of the crown of Italy to that of Germany, while it opened to the latter many avenues to culture, was also attended with infinite sorrows.
It yoked together the two powers of emperor and pope, not