They are of different sizes, some about four inches in length and having spiral handles to facilitate their rotation after insertion.
They are driven in by a small, lead-loaded hammer with a leathern face.
Their use is very common in China and Japan, and was communicated to Europe by the physician to the Dutch Embassy in the seventeenth century.
It was revived in France in 1810.
The English needles are long, made of steel, and have knobbed heads to facilitate turning after introduction.
Tn every respect.
Leaden pipe is very extensively employed in buildings for discharging water, but, unless kept constantly filled, is a very dangerous material, its salts being active poisons.
Lining with tin is a good expedient.
In China and Japan, bamboos of large size are used to convey water from one point to another.
The ancient works executed under the later Roman emperors for the supply of Constantinople combine the system of aqueducts with the collection and impounding of water b
enable defenders to fire over the crest of the glacis.
2. (Civil Engineering.) a. A raised footway adjoining the parapet of a bridge.
b. A ledge on the face of a cutting.
Painted or carved work, resembling that of Japan, only more gaudy.
A back-mill or fulling-mill.
（Architecture.) A building appertaining to a cathedral or church, or a portion of the church itself, in which the ceremony of baptism is performed.
If a sslands of Oceanica.
In Java and Sumatra it is the common material for writing upon.
When solidified and burnished, it resembles parchment.
Manuscripts in European museums attest its quality.
The same bark made into a pulp is used in China and Japan for making paper.
The processes adopted with bamboo and the mulberry-bark are substantially similar after the reduction of the raw material into a pulpy condition.
The Chinese processes are as follows: —
The paper-stuff being rinsed wit
er, vinegar, etc.
White coopering consists of buckets, tubs, churns, etc.
Bucket-making and barrel-making are generally carried on in factories, special machinery being employed.
Japanese coopers (from a native picture)
The accompanying cut gives an impression that the business of coopering is conducted on energetic principles.
While the Hindoo bricklayer sits at his work, and the blacksmith of some other country— name forgotten—holds his tongs with his foot, it appears that in Japan one holds the driver and another climbs upon the trussed cask to use the hammer.
A hammer with a narrow peen, whose length is in the plane of the motion of the hammer; used for battering and flaring an iron hoop to fit the bulge of a cask.
Also called a fluehammer.
A long plane set in slanting position, sole upward, upon which staves are jointed.
A jointer. Planes and shaves are or may be used in smoothing the work.
See list under next ar
he heating operation repeated six times.
（Photography.) A process, so named by Hunt, which derives its name from the material of the plate (iron) on which it is taken.
Plates of sheet-iron are covered with a surface of black Japan varnish.
This is immersed in collodion, and after a time in the silver solution.
It is then placed in the holder and exposed in the camera.
1. A short tube or thimble made slightly conical, and used to fasten the tubes in the sh the sickle, nor the tender of animals as the cultivator of the land.
A weapon like a flail was used in war, but Osiris was eminently peaceful and useful, and his emblems had the same character.
The flail is the ordinary means of thrashing in Japan.
It differs in no essential respect from that of other countries.
The illustration, from a native painting, shows that both sexes engage in the work.
2. An ancient weapon used in war. It was a club swinging from the end of a long handle, lik<
use in the arts, it has not so far been successful except at Ticonderoga, by the American Graphite Company.
A large deposit of the granulated graphite was supposed to have been found in California, and a favorable report was made upon it by one of the European savants, but there is no real graphite in the mixture; it is a sort of carboniferous clay, deceptive in its physical characteristics.
A good, compact, granulated graphite is found in Sonora, Mexico, and a specimen brought to us from Japan is of the same character; but the granulated graphite best and longest known to commerce is found in vast quantities in Bohemia and Bavaria.
It is divided in water and floated, to separate it into grades, not being pure enough as it comes from the mines.
It is cheap in price, but poor in quality for use in the arts, except for pencils after extensive purification.
It is not very refractory, and is of but little use for crucibles, although long employed for want of better.
It is useless f
Fig. 2518 shows four Japanese hoes in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
The clumsiness of the two larger ones is something fearful to contemplate.
The hoe or mattock is the usual implement for cultivating the land in Japan.
The plow is also used.
The hoes of Polynesia, when first discovered, were the shells of the oyster or a large kind of pinna; a bone from the back of a turtle; or a plate of tortoise-shell.
The hoe was used with a thrust motion, like our Dutwas a bandage or boot, and was used principally on long journeys.
Suetonius refers to the dismounting of Vespasian's muleteer to shoe his mules.
Wrappings of plaited fiber, such as hemp or spartium (broom), were used, as was also leather.
In Japan the horses have clogs of twisted straw, of which a large supply is carried on a journey.
When worn, another is immediately applied.
Our plan would no doubt appear a barbarous custom in their minds.
The Siberians and Kamtschatkians use travelin
two months time decant into bottles and cork.
A drop or two of creosote or essential oil of cloves will prevent molding, or, as Dr. Gale remarked to an astounded Indianian, will prevent the deposition of the ova of infusoria animalculae.
He might have added, and the sporadic growth of thallogenic cryptogams.
Such would probably be fatal to the fungi; the mere definition settled our brother from Indiana.
The addition of sugar to ink prevents sudden drying and makes copying ink.
Japan ink: Ribaucourt's recipe: aleppo galls, 8 ounces; logwood, 4 ounces; sulphate of iron, 4 ounces; gum-arabic, 3 ounces; sulphate of copper, 1 ounce; sugar candy, 1 ounce.
The galls and logwood to be boiled in twelve pounds of soft water until reduced to six pounds. Strain, and add the other ingredients.
The ink dries with a gloss; hence its name.
Desormeaux recommends that the sulphate of iron be calcined to whiteness; coarse brown sugar instead of sugar candy; 1/4 ounce of acetate of
（Fabric.) A dress goods having a linen chain and silken weft.
Ja-pan — ink.
A writing-ink which has a dark, glossy color when dry. See ink.
Leather treated with several; coats of Japan varnish and dried in a stove.
The art of coating wood, metal, or paper, with a thick coat of hard, brilliant, varnish.
The art originated in Japan.
Japanning involves the baking of the varnished article.
The Japanese emploJapan.
Japanning involves the baking of the varnished article.
The Japanese employ a lacquer obtained from a tree by making incisions in the trunk and collecting the juice; this is at first like cream, but becomes black by exposure to the air. Their process is said to be as follows: After the juice has assumed a deep black color, finely pulverized charcoal is added to it. The lacquer is applied to an article in several successive coats, each being dried in the sun before the next is put on. It soon becomes extremely hard, and is polished with a smooth stone and water u
oil, paraffine, lime-water.
Flaxseed-oil, cotton-seed oil, lime-water, tallow.
Petroleum, tallow, beeswax, soda, glauber's salts.
Animal-oil, croton-oil, spermaceti, tallow, soda, potash, glycerine, ammonia.
Sheets of paper or of fabric, impregnated with graphite, steatite, paraffine, tallow, size, or soluble gums, are used for lubricating.
The best lubricant for bullets was found by the Springfield Board to consist of eight parts bayberrywax and one part graphite.
Japan wax is often used with graphite, but with inferior results.
Graphite cannot be made fine enough for lubricating purposes if separated by bolting, but must be separated by floating either in water or air. The simplest method is the water separation, and during the process it should be treated to a bath of dilute sulphuric acid, which will take up the particles of spar and iron, leaving the sulphates of lime, magnesia, and iron easily washed out. The mode of floating and settling to obtain
d by the circuit of Europe and Asia, that the latter about fills the western hemisphere, the goodliest island of Cipango (Japan) lying off the coast of the far Cathay.
In the mid-Atlantic is the island of Antilia, a spot partly conjectural, and alsntilia of Columbus, and yet the Queen of the Antilles, lies north and south, parallel with the coveted island of Zipango (Japan), which so persistently eluded the search of the man of Genoa, who tried to push his caravel through a continent.
Sea-) It is now mined extensively at Idria, in the Schiefergebirge, and is found in Hungary, many parts of Germany, in China, Japan, Mexico, Honduras, Columbia, Peru, and California.
The modes of obtaining mercury by the decomposition and distillatiotinate, and of New Almaden in California, are extensive and rich.
The ore is also found in Peru, China, Hungary, Sweden, Japan, and Chili.
In the furnace the ore is subjected to distillation in retorts which lead to condensing-chambers, or the b