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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jews and Judaism. (search)
in Paris, whose object it was to aid in removing Jewish disabilities wherever they might exist, and to raise the spiritual condition of their coreligionists in northern Africa, eastern Europe, and western Asia by the founding of schools. From these small beginnings the Alliance has grown to be an important factor in the conservation of Jewish interests. Faithful to its programme, it has established a large number of elementary and technical schools, and has intervened actively in Algeria, Morocco, the Turkish Empire, and Persia whenever Jews or Jewish interests were in any way threatened. Its attempt, however, to represent the whole Jewish people has not been successful; for the reason that it has been allied too closely with French national interests; and side by side with the Alliance Fran-çaise it has been an active propagandist of the French language and of French culture in the East. This one-sidedness of its work is best seen in the fact that by its side similar organizatio
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Martinez-Campos, Arsenio 1834-1877 (search)
Martinez-Campos, Arsenio 1834-1877 Military officer; born in Cuba in 1834; was educated at Madrid; and became a colonel when twenty-nine years old. For a time he served in Morocco and Cuba, and returned to Spain, with the rank of brigadier-general, in 1870, and took part in putting down the Carlist insurrection. Later he declared against the republic and was imprisoned as a conspirator, but after requesting to serve in the Liberal army he was set free, and given the command of a division under Concha. He took part in the battles of Los Munecas and Galdames, and raised the siege of Bilbao. Returning to Madrid he espoused the cause of Alfonso XII., and with Jovellar succeeded in placing the royal heir on the throne. He was next sent into the disturbed territory of Catalonia, which he pacified in less than a month. In 1876 he ended the civil war by defeating Don Carlos at Peña de la Plata, for which he Arsenio Martinez-Campos. was appointed a captain-general. In the follow
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), United States of America. (search)
ontinental Congress meets at New York......Nov. 6, 1786 Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, chosen president of Congress......Feb. 2, 1787 Congress advises the States to send delegates to a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation, to meet May 14......Feb. 21, 1787 Congress by ordinance provides government for the territory northwest of the Ohio (now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin)......July 13, 1787 Treaty between the United States and Morocco ratified......July 18, 1787 South Carolina cedes to the United States her claims to a strip 12 miles wide west of a line from the head of the Tugaloo River to the North Carolina border......Aug. 9, 1787 Delegates to the convention sign the Constitution......Sept. 17, 1787 Thirteenth Continental Congress adjourns; 359 days session......Oct. 30, 1787 Fourteenth Continental Congress meets at New York......Nov. 5, 1787 Spanish intrigues in Kentucky......1788 Cyrus Griffin,
d slept soundly, neither dreaming of Moor or Christian, Yankee or Confederate. John spread me the next morning a sumptuous breakfast, and brought me off glowing accounts of the Gibraltar market, filled with all the delicacies both of Spain and Morocco. The prize which we had liberated on ransom-bond, followed us in, and was anchored not far from us. There Was another large American ship at anchor. At an early hour a number of English officers, of the garrison and navy, and citizens called the opposite Morocco coast, to and from which small steamers ply regularly. But it is the fruits and vegetables that more especially astonish the beholder. Here the horn of plenty seems literally to have been emptied. The south of Spain, and Morocco, both fine agricultural countries, have one of those genial climates which enables them to produce all the known fruits and vegetables of the earth. Whatever you desire, that you can have, whether it be the apple, the pear, or the cherry of the
s! Upon demanding an explanation, they were informed that they had been arrested upon a requisition of the United States Consul, resident in that town. By special treaties between the Christian powers, and the Moorish and other non-Christian powers on the borders of the Mediterranean, it is provided that the consuls of the different Christian powers shall have jurisdiction, both civil and criminal, over their respective citizens. It was under such a treaty between the United States and Morocco, that the United States Consul had demanded the arrest of Messrs. Myers and Tunstall, as citizens of the United States, alleging that they had committed high crimes against the said States, on the high seas! The ignorant Moorish officials knew nothing, and cared nothing, about the laws of nations; nor did they puzzle their small brains with what was going on, on the American continent. All they knew was, that one Christian dog, had demanded other Christian dogs, as his prisoners, and troo
continued decrease in exports. Queen Victoria would shortly visit the Duke of Newcastle at Clumber. It is stated that a pamphlet had appeared in Paris calling on the American government to take military precautions against French invasion. It was rumored, but denied, that France had made overtures to Austria for the session of Venetia. A Brussels dispatch to Turin announces the recognition of the Kingdom of Italy by Belgium. The basis of the treaty between Spain and Morocco, for the settlement of the war indemnity, had been finally arranged. The Austrian Government had resolved to re-establish a Hungary in Administration, which will carry out Government intentions in every way. The United States steamer Saginaw was at Japan. European View. The London Times publishes a long letter from Hon. Theodore S. Fay, American Minister to Switzerland, which is mainly devoted to a refutation of Earl Russell's late speech at Newcastle, in which he (Earl Rus
eaty has been negotiated, subject to the Senate's consent, with Liberia; and a similar negotiation is now pending with the republic of Hayti. A considerable improvement of the national commerce is expected to result from these measures. Our relations with Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia, Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Rome, and the other European States, remain undisturbed. Very favorable relations also continue to be maintained with Turkey, Morocco, China, and Japan. During the last year there has not only been no change of our previous relations with the independent States of our own continent, but more friendly sentiments than have heretofore existed are believed to be entertained by these neighbors, whose safety and progress are so intimately connected with our own. This statement especially applies to Mexico. Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Chile. The commission under the convention with the Republic of New G