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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 7: sea-coast defences..—Brief description of our maritime fortifications, with an Examination of the several Contests that have taken place between ships and forts, including the attack on San Juan d'ulloa, and on St. Jean d'acre (search)
and cruised about till February, 1760, without meeting a single British vessel, although sixty-one ships of the line were then stationed upon the coasts of England and France, and several of these were actually in pursuit. In 1796, when the French attempted to throw the army of Hoche into Ireland, the most strenuous efforts were made by the British navy to intercept the French fleet in its passage. The Channel fleet, of near thirty sail of the line, under Lord Bridport, was stationed at Spithead; Sir Roger Curtis, with a smaller force, was cruising to the westward; Vice-admiral Colpoys was stationed off Brest, with thirteen sail of the line; and Sir Edward Pellew (afterwards Lord Exmouth) watched the harbor, with a small squadron of frigates. Notwithstanding this triple floating bulwark, as it was called--one fleet on the enemy's coast, a second in the Downs, and a third close on their own shores — the French fleet of forty-four vessels, carrying a land force of twenty-five thousa
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Howe, Richard, Earl 1725-1799 (search)
with his brother, William Howe, to make peace with or war upon the Americans. They failed to secure peace, and made war. After leaving the Delaware with his fleet, in 1778, he had an encounter off Rhode Island with a French fleet, under the Count d'estaing, when he disappeared from the American waters. In 1782 he was made admiral of the blue, and created an English viscount; and in September of that year he relieved Gibraltar, and received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. In 1787 he was made admiral of the white, and in August the next year was raised to an earldom. Because of a complete victory over the French, which he obtained in 1794, he was rewarded with a gold medal, the Order of the Garter, and the commission of admiral of the fleet, which he resigned in 1797.. His last service in the royal navy was persuading mutineers at Spithead to return to duty. He died in England, Aug. 5, 1799. In St. Paul's Cathedral a fine monument was erected to the memory of Admiral Howe.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Walker, Sir Hovenden 1660- (search)
Walker, Sir Hovenden 1660- Military officer; born in Somersetshire, England, about 1660; became a captain in the navy in 1692, and rear-admiral of the white in 1710. The next year he was knighted by Queen Anne. He made an attempt to capture Quebec in 1711, commanding the naval armament sent for that purpose (see Quebec). Returning to England, his ship, the Edgar, blew up at Spithead, when nearly all the crew perished. This accident and the disastrous expedition to Quebec drew upon him almost unqualified censure, and he was dismissed from the service. He afterwards settled upon a plantation in South Carolina; but returned to Great Britain, and died of a broken heart in Dublin, Ireland, in January, 1726.
was desired to ascertain. In 1839, Thornthwaite (England) adopted a waist-belt of india-rubber cloth, to which was connected a small, strong copper vessel charged with highly compressed air. The belt is put on in a collapsed state, and the diver descends; but when he wishes to rise, by a valve he allows the compressed air to fill the belt, which increases his levity and assists his ascent. The armor used by Mr. Dean in 1834, when he descended to the wreck of the Royal George (sunk off Spithead, August 28, 1782), was composed of india-rubber, made perfectly water-tight, and having a metallic helmet which rested on the shoulders and admitted free motion of the head. Three glass windows admitted light and allowed the diver to examine the remains of the ship. A flexible tube was connected to an air-pump above, and admitted air to the helmet. A sinking-weight of 90 pounds was attached to his person. A race in submarine armor took place in Boston harbor on the 4th of July, 1868.
fted by the guide-rollers, and the process is repeated. The cards are finished and made true by grinding. (See card-grinding machine.) These wire brushes are termed cards, and such fillets form the clothing of the drums, cylinders, or strips to which they are fastened. Ca-reen′ing. (Nautical.) The operation of exposing a part of a ship's bottom by a purchase applied to the masts to tilt them laterally from the perpendicular. It was careening that upset the Royal George in 1782 at Spithead: — They Had made the vessel heel, And laid her on her side. Ca′ret. (Printing.) A mark ( ⁁ ) indicating an insertion; interlinear or marginal. Car′go-jack. (Nautical.) An implement like a lifting-jack, but sometimes used upon its side for stowing heavy cargo. Car′go-port. (Nautical.) An opening in the side of vessels having two or more decks, through which the lading is received and delivered. It is closed by a shutter; and made water-tight before
; the other end is the head. (Carpentry.) The lower end or foot of a rafter where it rests on the wall or plate. (Fire-arms.) The upper end of the butt-end of a musket when in firing position. The tail of a gun-lock hammer. 3. A lean or inclination. (Nautical.) a. The inclination laterally of a vessel as she careens under a press of sail. Allowance for the heel is made in laying guns, a pendulum being used for the purpose. In careening the Royal George, 120 guns, at Spithead, 1782, to get at a water-pipe which discharged below the water-line, the vessel was sunk at her moorings. They made the vessel heel And laid her on her side. b. Said of a ship when deep in the water aft. By the heel, in contradistinction to by the head. Heel-blank. (Shoemaking.) A set of lifts fastened together in readiness for attachment to a boot. A blank heel. Heel-breasting machine. Heel-breast′-- ing ma-chine′. A machine for cutting down the straight front
lerophon is 6 inches, and that of the Hercules, as already stated, 9 inches. The French have increased the thickness of their plating to 15 centimetres, about 6 inches; and the Marengo and Ocean have plating 20 centimetres, or nearly 9 inches, in thickness. Plates for experimental purposes have been rolled 15 inches thick, and it is claimed that plates of sound and uniform quality can be rolled 10 inches thick. To resist the attacks of iron-clads the British government is erecting at Spithead two forts, plated with 15-inch iron. Each fort is 700 feet in circumference, 230 feet in height, and is armed with two tiers of guns, one consisting of twenty-four 600-pounders, and the other of twenty-five 400-pounders. The two will command the only deep channel leading from the sea to Portsmouth Harbor. The estimated cost of each fort is about £ 1,000,000 sterling. See armor-plating. Fig. 2703 shows broadside views of a number of English iron-clads, and is introduced to illustrate
bject. Rockets of large size, guided by a tube projecting from the vessel, have been tried, but without very flattering prospects of success. See submarine boat; submarine gun; torpedo. Subma-rine′ Blast′ing. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A means for the removal of submerged rocks, shoals, sunken vessels, or other impediments to navigation. The first effort in this direction was probably that of Colonel Pasley, about 1841, in blowing up the wreck of the Royal George, sunk at Spithead, England, in 1782. Fig. 6021 illustrates some of the operations for the removal of the submarine obstacles to navigation which formerly rendered that part of the East River known as Hellgate so dangerous to navigation in Long Island Sound. The principal of these were Pot Rock, on which the British frigate Hussar was wrecked at the close of the Revolutionary War, occasioning the loss of many lives and a large amount of treasure; Drake Rock; Holmes' Rock; the Frying Pan: and Way's Reef. Thes<
The Daily Dispatch: June 6, 1861., [Electronic resource], Reinforcements for the British American squadron, &c. (search)
tion before receiving her crew, who are now burthened on the Hebe hulk.--Mr. Patterson, appointed last week master of the Driver, has recently returned from China, where he served on board the Weasel gunboat, and received eleven wounds in action. In consequence of continued indisposition, he was this day superceded, and entered on the books of the Fisgard flag-ship on full pay until his recovery. The Driver is ordered to ship her crew on Friday, and is expected to leave for Portsmouth on Saturday next. A letter from Portsmouth dock-yard of the 8th of May, says the Flying Fish, six screw steam sloop, Commander Hope, (attached to the channel squadron,) left Spithead this morning under steam, and proceeded to the westward. The Driver, six steam sloop, Commander Horatio Nelson, was this day inspected in the dry dock. She is in excellent condition, and the whole of her berths, etc., are ready to receive her officers and crew, who will join on Friday, for the American station.
igh. England The weather was fine for the crops, causing a decline in breadstuffs, while cotton was in active demand at steady prices. In the House of commons the bill for the abolition of the church rates was lost through the casting vote of the speaker. Mrs. Smith O'Brien died at Limerick on the 15th. M.Blondin had made his second provincial ascent at Bradford, Yorkshire, in presence of a large assembly. The American ship Peter Marcy, from New Orleans, passed Spithead and stood out to the southward for Havre, with the flag of the Confederate States flying from the peak. English Views of American affairs. The London Times, in an article speculating upon the probable course of events in America, says: "With whichever side victory may rest, the battle is likely to be a hard one, and though the main effort of the Washington Government may be postponed till the close of the year, it is probable that much blood will be shed within the limits of
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