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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Federal Union, the John Fiske (search)
nitial difficulty of securing approximate equality of weight in the federal councils between States of unequal size. The simple device by which this difficulty was at last surmounted has proved effectual, although the inequalities between the States have greatly increased. To-day the population of New York is more than eighty times that of Nevada. In area the State of Rhode Island is smaller than Montenegro, while the State of Texas is larger than the Austrian Empire, with Bavaria and Wurtemberg thrown in. Yet New York and Nevada, Rhode Island and Texas each send two Senators to Washington, while on the other hand in the lower House each State has a number of representatives proportioned to its population. The upper House of Congress is therefore a federal, while the lower House is a national body, and the government is brought into direct contact with the people without endangering the equal rights of the several States. The second great compromise of the American Constitutio
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Harmony Society. (search)
Harmony Society. A communistic society settled at Economy, near Pittsburg. George Rapp, the head of the society, was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, October, 1757; died at Economy in 1847. Rapp and a few of his adherents sailed for America in 1803, and began several settlements in Maryland and Pennsylvania. In 1814 they removed to Posey county, Ind., selling their old home for $100,000, which was much below its value. In 1824 they sold the town of Harmony and 20,000 acres of land to Robert Owen for $150,000, and returned to Pennsylvania, settling at Economy. Originally each family retained its property, but in the year 1807 they established a community of goods and adopted celibacy. As the society does not seek new members, it is rapidly approaching extinction, and great curiosity is felt by their neighbors in Pittsburg as to the disposition of the large and valuable property.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Memminger, Charles Gustavus 1803- (search)
Memminger, Charles Gustavus 1803- Financier; born in Wurtemberg, Germany, Jan. 9, 1803; was taken to Charleston, S. C., in infancy; graduated at South Carolina College in 1820, and began to practise law in 1826. In the nullification movement in South Carolina (see nullification) he was a leader of the Union men. In 1860 he was a leader of the Confederates in that State, and on the formation of the Confederate government was made Secretary of the Treasury. He had been for nearly twenty years at the head of the finance committee of the South Carolina legislature. He died March 7, 1888. In January, 1860, as a representative of the political leaders in South Carolina, he appeared before the legislature of Virginia as a special commissioner to enlist the representatives of the Old Dominion in a scheme to combat the abolitionists. In the name of South Carolina, he proposed a convention of the slave-labor States to consider their grievances and to take action for their defence.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mergenthaler, Ottmar 1854-1899 (search)
Mergenthaler, Ottmar 1854-1899 Inventor; born in Wurtemberg, Germany, May 10, 1854; came to the United States friendless and penniless when eighteen years old; and first secured employment under the government in Washington to look after the mechanism of clocks, bells, and signal service apparatus. In 1876 he was employed by a mechanical engineering firm in Baltimore. Later, while in the employment of this firm, he made experiments that led to the invention of a type-setting machine. For four years he spent all his leisure time in perfecting his plans. He first conceived the idea of a rotary apparatus, but afterwards made a complete change in his plan and adopted the linotype scheme, which he finally perfected. His machine was worked by a key-board similar to that of a typewriter, and was capable of setting a line of type or dies, adjusting it to a desired width, and casting it into a solid line of type-metal. He secured patents for his invention, but it was not a practical
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Morse, Samuel Finley Breese 1791-1879 (search)
violations of the inventor's rights, and for a long series of years most vexatious and expensive litigation. But Morse triumphed everywhere, and he received most substantial testimonials of the profound respect which his great discovery and invention had won for him. In 1846 Yale College conferred on him the degree of Ll.D., and in 1848 the Sultan of Turkey gave him the decoration of the Nishan Iftikar. Gold medals for scientific merit were given him by the King of Prussia, the King of Wurtemberg, and the Emperor of Austria. In 1856 he received from the Emperor of the French the cross. of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. In 1857 the King of Denmark gave him the cross of Knight Commander of the first class of the Danebrog. In 1858 the Queen of Spain presented him the cross of Knight Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic; the King of Italy gave him the cross of Ss. Maurice and Lazarus, and from the King of Portugal he received the cross of the Order of the Tower and th
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New harmony. (search)
New harmony. The first non-religious community established in America. In 1805 a party of Harmonists, members of a sect founded in Wurtemberg about 1780, emigrated to America and first settled in Butler county, Pa. In 1814 they removed to Indiana; purchased 27,000 acres of land; and named the settlement Harmony. Robert Owen (q. v.) purchased this property in 1824; renamed the settlement New Harmony; and organized a new community which, on Jan. 12, 1826, adopted a constitution under the name of The New harmony community of equality. On July 4, following, Mr. Owen delivered his famous declaration of mental independence against the trinity of man's oppressors—private property, irrational religion, and marriage. Owen failed in his scheme for a social community, and returned to England. The original founders of Harmony, after selling their property in Indiana, returned to Pennsylvania, and established the new community of Economy, near Pittsbu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ottendorfer, Oswald 1826- (search)
Ottendorfer, Oswald 1826- Journalist; born in Zwittau, Moravia, Feb. 26, 1826; studied in the universities of Prague and Vienna; took part in the Austrian Revolution of 1848; the Schleswig-Holstein war against Denmark; and in the revolutions in Baden and Saxony; came to the United States in 1850; was proprietor of the Staats-Zeitung, New York; and gave large sums of money to educational and charitable institutions. He was an active Democrat, but opposed to Tammany Hall. He died in New York City, Dec. 15, 1900.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Rapp, George 1770-1847 (search)
Rapp, George 1770-1847 Reformer; born in Wurtemberg, Germany, in 1770; was the founder of the Harmonists. He died in Economy, Pa., Aug. 7, 1847. See New harmony; Owen, Robert.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Treaties. (search)
dship, commerce, etc.NaplesOct. 1, 1855 Foreign Power and Object of Treaty.Where Concluded.Date. United Mexican States: Treaty of LimitsMexicoJan. 12, 1828 Treaty of Amity, commerce, navigationMexicoApril 5, 1831 Venezuela: Treaty of Peace, friendship, navigation, commerceCaracasJan. 20, 1836 Convention of Satisfying Aves Island claimsValenciaJan. 14, 1859 Treaty of Amity, commerce, navigation, extraditionCaracasAug. 27, 1860 Convention of Referring claimsCaracasApril 25, 1866 Wurtemberg: Convention of Abolishing droit d'aubaine and taxes on emigrationBerlinApril 10, 1844 Treaty of NaturalizationStuttgartJuly 27, 1868 Zanzibar: Convention of Enlarging treaty with Muscat, 1833ZanzibarJuly 3, 1886 General conventions. Convention with Belgium, Brazil, Dominican Republic, France, Great Britain, Guatemala, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Salvador, Servia, Spain, Sweden, Swiss Confederation, and Tunis; conventions for the protection of industrial property; sign
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Waldersee, Mary Esther, Countess von (search)
Waldersee, Mary Esther, Countess von Born in New York City, Oct. 3, 1837: daughter of David Lee; spent her early years in Paris with her sister, Josephine, the wife of Baron August von Waechter, ambassador from Wurtemberg to France. There Mary became the wife of Prince Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg-Noer, who had been exiled. The prince died July 2, 1865, soon after his marriage. In 1871 his widow married Albert, Count von Waldersee, who was appointed chief of the general staff of the German army to succeed Count von Moltke in 1888; field-marshal in 1895: and commander of the allied armies in China in 1900. The countess is credited with possessing a powerful influence in the German Court, and with having brought about the marriage of Emperor William II. with the Princess Augusta Victoria.