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ying out the sides of a building at right angles; a rod, usually five or ten feet long, for measuring lengths; compasses, for traversing arches and vaults; a line and line-pins, for keeping the courses straight and level as the work progresses; and a hod, for carrying bricks and mortar to the workman. Bricks are laid in courses so as to break joints, and their arrangement with regard to each other constitutes what is called the bond. There are two kinds of bond made use of in England and America, — English or old English, and Flemish, — the former, however, being much more commonly employed than the latter. See bond. See Mason's and bricklayer's tools, etc. Brick-ma-chine′. Bricks have been made by machinery for many years. Some of the early United States patents, of which the record was unfortunately burned in 1836, are dated 1792, 1793, 1800, 1802, 1806, 1807, and a tolerably constant stream has followed them. About 122 patents were granted in the United States prev<
unds. Siren60 pounds. Cannon or ordnance as at present constructed, and used in Europe and America, may be divided into three classes: guns, or cannon proper, howitzers, and mortars. Carronadeshe individual fibers parallel, as explained under card. The first carding-machines built in America were made for Mr. Orr, of East Bridgewater, Mass., in 1786. The carding-machine consists of y miles, £ 20,000 if to thirty miles, to be determined by a voyage from England to some port in America. John Harrison, born in 1693 at Faulby, near Pontefract, in England, undertook the task, andnds to the ream. Co-lumbi-um. A rare metal, so named from having been first discovered in America. Now called niobium. Once called tantalum. Col′umn. 1. (Architecture.) A vertical suppe Levant; taken thence to the Bahamas, and thence to Georgia in 1786. The first cotton-mill in America was at Beverly, Mass., in 1788. In the following list are associated the terms used in the d
point on the varnished roller. The points are moved by elaborate machinery, and the effect is analogous to that of the eccentric and rose-engine lathes. 2. An apparatus on the principle of the pantograph, but provided with a cutting device and machinery for causing pressure upon the surface to be engraved, so as to produce lines similar to those made by hand with the graver. Collas (English patent) engraving-machine, 1830. Electro-magnetic engraving-machine used in Germany, 1854; in America, 1858. Guerrant and Field's engraving-machine was patented in 1867, and was in operation in New York City during the year 1868. To engrave by means of this machine the operator sits with a copy of the drawing, photograph, or whatever design is to be engraved, directly in front of him. A small pointer rests upon the drawing, and the whole operation consists in moving the pointer over the several lines of the copy. The pointer is operated by two small cranks, one of which produces a vert
d water to the depth of eight inches is added. The flint is ground by being levigated between the runners and the bed, and by grinding the particles against each other. The machine resembles the arrastra of Spain and the Spanish countries of America, excepting that in the arrastra the blocks are dragged around in the bed, being connected by thongs to the revolving arms; and also that the argentiferous slimes are treated with mercury in the arrastra, instead of being merely levigated in wateremity an ordinary whistle and a valve opening inward. When the vessel is partially filled with water and rocked to and fro, the air is forced through the whistle and sounds an alarm. Fog-whistle. On dit: The most powerfuf log-whistle in America is at Cape Fourcher, N. S. It can be heard fifteen miles in clear weather, and twenty-five with the wind. Foil. 1. A thin leaf of metal, for plating, or to color a gem behind which it is placed. A colored foil imparts its tint to a gem wh
an, flint, hard wood, and various other substitutes have been employed, the latter by the ancient Egyptians. Hoe-swage. The Feejees are very ingenious in finding substitutes for metal. A hard stone ground to an edge forms an axe. A blade of tortoise-shell attached to a handle is their knife. The spines of echini are their boring-tools. Rats' teeth set in wood are gravers and chisels. The mushroom coral answers for a file, and pumice-stone for sand-paper. The axes and hatchets of America, and the knives and chisels of England, are fast superseding their primitive tools. They can now cut up their bakolo or long-pig—as they term the edible human body—with more civilized implements. The broad and thin metallic blade is quite a modern contrivance, and was never well made until made in the United States. It is now a scientific tool, sharp, light, and shiny. Hoes should be selected for covering or cutting; the latter have a less angle with the handle. Clean your hoes alway
lder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the
Lignum-vi′tae. The wood of a tree of the genus Guiacum, a native of the warm latitudes of America. It is hard and heavy, and is used for sheaves of ship's blocks, and for ninepin balls. Limwith unimportant modifications, is the form given to the lithographic hand-press in England and America. In Germany, Belgium, and France, presses of this construction are rarely seen. In Prussia, f diameter is now employed to apply the pressure. Since 1865, many press-builders in Europe and America have turned their attention actively to this subject, and produced serviceable machines. One oe from Rochester to Syracuse, 81 miles, in 61 minutes, said to be the fastest time ever made in America. The life of a locomotive-engine is stated in a paper read before the British Association attchouc (cut small), 3 ounces. Dissolve with heat. The following compounds have been used in America: — Resin, flowers of sulphur, antimony, oil rosemary, lampblack, water, carbonate of iron, s
es of Spain against the heirs of Columbus, from 1508 to 1527, with the object of withdrawing from them the rights and privileges which had been granted by the Crown to their father in 1492, in which it was to be decided what parts of the new continent were first seen by Columbus. In the course of this suit it was never pretended that he had preceded Columbus in the discovery of the continent. Amerigo died at Seville, February 22, 1512. In 1520 maps were extant, having in them the name of America, proposed by Hylacomylus in 1507. Las Casas, in treating on the subject in an unpublished work, the Historia general de las Indias, says that the statement that Amerigo sailed in the year 1497 appears to have been an error of the pen and not an intentional false statement, and adds that the foreign writers call the country America. It ought to be Columba. Farther on he attributes intentional deceit to Amerigo, but considers it strange that Hernando Colon, who had had in his hands Ameri
ouari-nutCaryocar nuciferum, etc.South AmericaContains a sweet oil. Much used in South America. SunflowerHelianthus annuusEurope, etcSeed yields an oil. Used in making fancy soaps, etc. Tallow (vegetable).Pentadesma butyraSierra LeoneTallow, a term often applied to solid fatty substances obtained from plants. That produced from the seeds of the Stillingia sebifera is used for candles by the Chinese. Stillingia sebiferaChina Bassia butyraceaeN. India WalnutJuglans regia, etcEurope and AmericaAn oil often sold as nut-oil. Used in the arts and to adulterate other oils. Wax (bees)Beeswax, although not strictly a vegetable production, is primarily derived from the pollen of flowers Wax (insect)Fraxinus sinensisChinaA kind of wax deposited by an insect, the coccus pe-la, on the leaves of this species of ash. Wax (Japan)Rhus succedaneaJapanA vegetable wax afforded by the fruit of the tree. Used in candle-making Wax (palm)Copernicia ceriferaBrazilWax obtained from the surface of
to the amount of £ 100,000. This hardly preceded the establishment of paper manufactories in America, as we find that William Rittinghuysen, anglicized Rittenhouse, — a name afterward memorable inchief source from which American paper was derived. In 1710 another paper-mill — the second in America — was erected at Crefeld, now forming part of Germantown, by William De Wees, a connection of tn abolished. Signatures to sheets were used by Zorat in Milan in 1470. The first press in America was in Mexico. The Manual for adults was printed on it in 1550 by Juan Cromberger, who was probably the first printer in America. The second press was at Lima, in 1586. The press at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was established in January, 1639, by Stephen Daye. It still exists as the Universian letters. Alston's system consists of a slight modification of the Roman characters. In America, the system of Mr. J. B. Friedlander has been to some extent employed. The alphabet is Roman c
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