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Raphael Semmes, Memoirs of Service Afloat During the War Between the States 6 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 2 0 Browse Search
The Daily Dispatch: June 17, 1861., [Electronic resource] 2 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Tariff. (search)
Tariff. The tariff is a tax levied upon exports or (especially) imports. A duty was early collected by Moslem rulers at the Spanish port Tarifa, whence the modern name, on goods passing through the Strait of Gibraltar. The word as used in the United States was adopted from the English tariffs, which before the reign of Queen Elizabeth were prohibitory, and since used as a source of revenue. In the United States the tariff is for revenue and protection; there are no prohibitory duties except on chiccory, shoddy, doctored wines, and a few articles of like character. Before the adoption of the United States Constitution most of the American colonies had systems of taxation on imports. The first acts of the Dutch West India Company with reference to the colony of New Netherlands provided for export and import duties, and specific rates were levied on furs and codfish by act of June 7, 1629. In 1661 the council of Virginia laid an import tax on rum and sugar, and forbade unloa
is, we set our side-lights, and stationed extra lookouts. Several ships passed us during the night, hurrying forward on the wings of the wind, at a rapid rate, and sometimes coming so close, in the darkness, as almost to make one's hair stand on end. The next morning the weather became clear and beautiful, and the stream of ships had ceased. The reader may be curious to know the explanation of this current of ships. It is simple enough. They were all Mediterranean ships. At the strait of Gibraltar there is a constant current setting into the Mediterranean. This current is of considerable strength, and the consequence is, that when the wind also sets into the strait—that is to say, when it is from the westward—it is impossible for a sailing-ship to get out of the strait into the Atlantic. She is obliged to come to anchor in the bay of Gibraltar, and wait for a change of wind. This is sometimes a long time in coming—the westerly winds continuing here, not unfrequently, two and<
of Gibraltar, to obtain a supply of coal, I next dispatched my paymaster for Cadiz, with instructions to purchase in that port, and ship the article around to me. A Mr. Tunstall, who had been the United States Consul at Cadiz, before the war, was then in Gibraltar, and at his request, I sent him along with the paymaster. They embarked on board a small French steamer plying between some of the Mediterranean ports, and Cadiz. Tangier, a small Moorish town on the opposite side of the Strait of Gibraltar, lies in the route, and the steamer stopped there for a few hours to land and receive passengers, and to put off, and take on freight. Messrs. Myers and Tunstall, during this delay, went up into the town, to take a walk, and as they were returning, were set upon by a guard of Moorish soldiers, and made prisoners! Upon demanding an explanation, they were informed that they had been arrested upon a requisition of the United States Consul, resident in that town. By special treaties
He had quite a domestic establishment on board his ship, as, besides his own wife, who had accompanied him on the voyage, there was an ex-United States Consul, with his wife and three small daughters, returning with him, as passengers, to the New England States. There was no attempt to cover the cargo of the Wales, and I was glad to find, that it was consigned to, and probably owned by, the obnoxious house of the Barings, in Boston, whose ship, the Neapolitan, I had burned, in the Strait of Gibraltar. This British house had rendered itself exceedingly active, during the war, in the Federal interest, importing large quantities of arms, and otherwise aiding the enemy; and I took especial pleasure, therefore, in applying the torch to its property. It was one of the New York Commercial Advertiser's pets—being a neutral house, domiciled in an enemy's country, for the purposes of trade. I have not heard what Admiral Milne and the British Minister at Washington did, when they heard of
Southern privateers in Europe. --A letter in the Boston Advertiser from an officer of the United States steamer Richmond, dated at Genca, May 21, brings the following important intelligence: It is currently reported here that several parties are only waiting our departure from the Mediterranean to fit out privateers.--These vessels would cruise about, just outside the Straits of Gibraltar and intercept and capture all vessels either in or outward bound. Immense injury might be done to our commerce in this way, for our trade with all the countries whose shores are washed by these waters is very large, and its only outlet is through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar.