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Rebellion Record: a Diary of American Events: Documents and Narratives, Volume 4. (ed. Frank Moore) 10 0 Browse Search
Alfred Roman, The military operations of General Beauregard in the war between the states, 1861 to 1865 6 0 Browse Search
The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Volume 1: The Opening Battles. (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller) 4 0 Browse Search
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1. 2 0 Browse Search
Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Chapter XXII: Operations in Kentucky, Tennessee, North Mississippi, North Alabama, and Southwest Virginia. March 4-June 10, 1862., Part II: Correspondence, Orders, and Returns. (ed. Lieut. Col. Robert N. Scott) 2 0 Browse Search
Col. John M. Harrell, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 10.2, Arkansas (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 2 0 Browse Search
James D. Porter, Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States Military History: Volume 7.1, Tennessee (ed. Clement Anselm Evans) 2 0 Browse Search
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 16. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones) 2 0 Browse Search
The Photographic History of The Civil War: in ten volumes, Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, Index (ed. Francis Trevelyan Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Sawing out the channel above Island number10. (search)
term canal, as used in all the letters and reports relating to the opening of this waterway, conveys an entirely wrong idea. No digging was done except by way of slightly widening a large break in the levee, and those who speak of working waist-deep in the water knew nothing of it. The enemy held Island Number10 and the left bank opposite, and the same bank from New Madrid down to Tiptonville, a ridge of high land between the back swamp and the river. In rear of their position was Reelfoot Lake and the overflow, extending from above them to a point below Tiptonville. Escape by land was impossible, New Madrid and the right bank below being occupied by General Pope. The gun-boats under Foote held the river above, and our heavy batteries commanded the only place of debarkation below. Having accomplished this much, the problem for General Pope to solve was to cross his army to make an attack, for which purpose he judged that two gun-boats, to be used as ferry-boats, would be suf
at Columbus, Miss., and I am acting for him. I had nothing here for Commodore Hollins, and in talking with Lieutenant Fister he told me that there was not ammunition enough in the whole fleet for a fight of three hours. He also says that the enemy now has a battery 8 or 10 miles below Tiptonville, and that communication with Tiptonville is effectually cut off by it. This isolates our army on Island 10 from all help, and as the river now overflows all the land below Tiptonville as far as Reelfoot Lake, there is no retreat for our forces on Island 10 in case they are attacked by overwhelming forces. Can they thus attack us? I fear from all the rumors current that they design throwing a large force on the Tennessee shore from New Madrid, landing as far above Tiptonville as they can, so as to elude our gunboats, and then moving on our rear while their gunboats attack us in front. If our gunboats get out of ammunition, as they must in a few more fights or harmless bombardments, this cr
y water it is twenty-seven. Commencing at Hickman, a great swamp, which afterward becomes Reelfoot Lake, extends along the left bank of the Mississippi and discharges its waters into the river for This peninsula, therefore, is itself an island, having the Mississippi on three sides, and Reelfoot Lake and the great swamps which border it on the other. A good road leads from Island No.10 along the west bank of Reelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. The only means of supply, therefore, for the forces at and around Island No.10, on this peninsula, was by the river. When the river was blockaded atThere was no communication with the interior, except by a small flatboat, which plied across Reelfoot Lake, a distance of two miles, and that through an opening cut through cypress-swamps for the pur for safe keeping, and proceeded to cross the country in the direction of Tiptonville, along Reelfoot Lake, as directed. It is almost impossible to give a correct account of the immense quantity o
the besiegers, together with all the guns and some thousands of small arms. Island No.10 was now isolated, indeed. Above it the river was aswarm with Federal gunboats; below it and along the Missouri shore was Pope's army. Southward was Reelfoot Lake, and eastward were impenetrable swamps. The only possible way of escape was by a road to the southward between the river and Reelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. But the brave defenders of the island were not ready to give up or to flee. They detReelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. But the brave defenders of the island were not ready to give up or to flee. They determined to remain and dispute the possession of the river at all hazards. At this time the river was very high. The whole wooded peninsula made by the great bend was covered with water. Houses, fences, trees — every movable thing — had been swept down the current. General Pope's great desideratum was to secure boats to ferry his army across the river that he might capture Island No.10. But the threatening cannon on the island forbade, in language without words, any attempt to pass them.
ur gunboats might fire into them from the river if taken by the enemy. The defences, consisting of strong profiles, were composed of three works, two on the river and one a little in advance of the others, and were calculated for about five hundred men each. The cremaillere lines, ordered on the right and rear of Island No.10, were to be provided with small redans for a few siege guns, and the navigation of Black Lagoon obstructed, so as to prevent the enemy's barges from getting into Reelfoot Lake, the shores of which, between the two cremaillere lines, were to be well guarded, and, if necessary, properly defended. The island opposite Tiptonville was to be examined, to determine whether or not it could be advantageously fortified. General McCown, of General Polk's forces, was selected to command those river defences, and General Trudeau, At that time a Vol. A. D. C. to General Polk. of Louisiana, to take charge of the heavy batteries at Island No.10 and in the Bend. Both o
een placed in command of the Island on the morning of the 7th, by order of General Mackall. Having had news, on the evening of that day, that General Pope's forces had effected a landing on the east bank of the river, and that the Confederate troops had already fallen back, he ordered and effected the evacuation of the work, leaving it in charge of Captain Hawes, of the artillery. Colonel Cook, that night, retreated with his regiment (about four hundred men) along the western shore of Reelfoot Lake, until he reached a ferry landing, near Tiptonville, where General Beauregard had had collected, through the activity and energy of Colonel Pickett, commanding at Union City, quite a number of canoes, skiffs, and other small boats, for such an emergency. With these Colonel Cook succeeded in saving, not only his own command, but several hundred stragglers who had gathered there during the night. Meanwhile, towards midnight on the 7th, General Pope's entire army had crossed the river and
d to be palisaded merely, so that our gunboats might fire into them from the river if they were taken by the enemy. The defences must consist of three works with strong profiles, for about five hundred men each—two on the river, and one a little in advance of the others. The cremaillere lines, on the right and rear of Island No.10, must be provided with small redans for a few siege-guns, and the navigation of Black Lagoon obstructed so as to prevent the enemy's barges from getting into Reelfoot Lake, the shores of which, between the two cremaillere lines, were to be well guarded, and, if need be, properly defended. The island opposite Tiptonville was to be examined, to determine if it could be advantageously fortified. I would advise the garrison at Fort Pillow (excepting a strong guard) to be sent, for the present, to New Madrid or Island No.10. All the heavy ordnance, not required at these two points, should be sent, when removed, from Columbus to Fort Pillow, or to any other
regiments were engaged opposite New Madrid, day and night, in mounting guns and digging rifle-pits, under constant fire from Federal batteries. On the night of April 4th, the Twelfth regiment was moved to Island No.10, where Colonel Cook was put in command by General Mackall, who moved with the remaining infantry to Madrid bend. On the 7th, finding his little rain-drenched force ineffectual to hold the position, Cook evacuated the island, and retreated through the overflowed swamps to Reelfoot lake, which he crossed on small boats and rafts; heavy rain and snow continuing during all of his movements. Reporting from Memphis, April 13th, Colonel Cook said that about 300 of his regiment and a few of the Eleventh were with him. Nearly all of Smith's regiment was surrendered with Mackall on the 8th. After Shiloh, Halleck besieged Corinth, and the Confederates evacuated that strategic point and fell back to Tupelo, where Beauregard, as commander, gave way to Bragg. In the organizati
eries ultimately were submerged, the men were in good form and full of confidence. The only losses sustained by the Confederates in the attack of the 17th of March was Lieut. William M. Clark, of Rucker's battery, killed, and Sergt. I. T. Postlethwaite and six men slightly wounded. Four shots struck Foote's fleet without effect. The exchange of shots continued at intervals until the 6th of April, when Captain Jackson, senior officer, under orders, spiked the guns and withdrew across Reelfoot lake with the entire artillery force. Flag-Officer Foote's experience at Forts Henry and Donelson caused him to keep without the range of Confederate guns. With his tactics the forts would never have been reduced. It was only when Pope's army crossed to the Tennessee shore, and capture was imminent, that Island No.10 was abandoned. General Mackall being cut off from the forts and heavy batteries, on the night of the same day undertook to save the infantry and light battery by a retreat t
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 16. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), The Signal Corps in the Confederate States army. (search)
owed up in every direction and torn to pieces. Trees were hacked down and torn to shreds by the heavy shells and the rifled cannon. The signal men at Battery No. 1 had no protection whatever—not even that of the parapet behind which the gunners squatted when not firing—for their position was in rear of the guns, where fell, as Captain Rucker says, many shot and shell. Upon the capture of New Madrid and Island No.10 by Admiral Foote and General Pope, the signal party escaped across Reelfoot lake, taking French leave of the commanding generals and paddling across on a raft of their own construction They repaired at once, of their own motion and without orders, to Corinth, Mississippi, then headquarters of the army, and reported for duty. The signal officer is merely mentioned by General Beauregard in his report of the fight at Shiloh Chapel (or Pittsburg landing) as doing active staff duty. After the battle, seventeen men were detailed to be instructed for duty in the Signal Co
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