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with which Lieutenant Johnston was connected in the year 1827 was the expedition to compel the Winnebago Indians to atone for outrages upon the white settlers. This tribe occupied the country about Lake Winnebago and along the banks of the Wisconsin River, with the Menomonees for their neighbors on the north; the Pottawattamies dwelt about the head-waters of Lake Michigan, and the Sacs and Foxes on both banks of the Mississippi in Northern Illinois, Southern Wisconsin, and Iowa. On the 24th bing the movement of troops to preserve peace on the Northwestern frontier, continues as follows: The detachment of the Sixth Regiment which left this place was accompanied by two companies of the Fifth Regiment from St. Peter's, up the Wisconsin River as far as the portage, where it was met by a detachment of the Second Regiment from Green Bay, under the command of Major Whistler. The Winnebagoes, in council, agreed to deliver up the leading men in the several outrages committed against
uld be spared from the slender force at Prairie du Chien, the troops at Fort Winnebago at the portage of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers and Fort Armstrong at Rock Island, and the companies of the Sixth Regiment at Jefferson Barracks, amounting in all trtook them on July 21, 1832, and successfully engaged them at what was known as Wisconsin Heights, a crossing of the Wisconsin River, twenty miles below Fort Winnebago. A letter from Mrs. Johnston to her mother gives the following account of thehusband: Generals Dodge and Henry, with their mounted men, overtook the retreating Indians at a point on the Wisconsin River fifteen miles above Blue Mounds. The Indians rose the crest of a hill on horseback, set up a yell, and fired, when eir only food. On the 25th, the regulars, with Alexander's and Henry's brigades, moved to within three miles of the Wisconsin River. In Mrs. Johnston's letter, already quoted, occurs the following: We got letters again last night, dated t
ed down to Fort Winnebago, where he remained until 1831. This fort was built in 1828, opposite the portage, about two miles from the junction of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. As late as 1830 the only mode of reaching Green Bay from Chicago, and from thence to Fort Winnebago, was by schooner, and the journey sometimes consumedch information of the Indian country. In the front lay an extent of meadow, across which was the portage road, about two miles in length, between the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. Teams of oxen and a driver were kept at the agency by the Government to transport the canoes of the Indians across this place, which at many seasons was wendition of that country, that I and the file of soldiers who accompanied me, were the first white men who ever passed over the country between the Portage of the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers, and the then village of Chicago. Fish and water-fowl were abundant; deer and pheasant less plentiful. The Indians subsisted largely on Indian c
going up on the south side of Rock River. The vanity of the young Indians was inflated by their success at Stillman's Run, as was shown by some exultant messages, and the sagacious old chief, whatever he may have previously calculated on, now saw that war was inevitable and immediate. With his band recruited by warriors from the Prophet's band, he crossed the north side of Rock River, and passing through the swamp Koshenong, fled over the prairies west of the Four Lakes toward the Wisconsin River. General Dodge with a battalion of mounted miners pursued and overtook the Indians while crossing the Wisconsin and attacked their rear-guard, which, when the main body had crossed, swam the river and joined in the retreat over the Kickapoo hills toward the Mississippi River. General Atkinson with his whole army continued the pursuit, and after a toilsome march overtook the Indians north of Prairie du Chien, on the bank of the Mississippi River, to the west side of which they were prepa
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Algonquian, or Algonkian, Indians, (search)
the southern extremity of Green Bay. The Menomonees are among the few Indian tribes who occupy the same domain as when they were discovered by Europeans in 1699. That domain is upon the shores of Green Bay, and there the tribe remains. The Miamis and Piankeshaws inhabited that portion of Ohio lying between the Miami or Maumee, on Lake Erie, and the watershed between the Wabash and Kaskia rivers. The English and the Five Nations called them the Twightwees. The Kickapoos were on the Wisconsin River when discovered by the French. The Illinois formed a numerous tribe, 12,000 strong, when discovered by the French. They were seated on the Illinois River, and composed a confederation of five families — namely, Kaskaskias, Cahokias, Tamaronas, Michigamies, and Peorias. The Shawnees occupied a vast region west of the Alleghany Mountains, and their great council-house was in the basin of the Cumberland River. The Powhatans constituted a confederacy of more than twenty tribes, includin
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Black Hawk (search)
ted States troops on board the steamboat Warrior, which had been sent up the river. After the fight the Warrior returned to Prairie du Chien. The contest was renewed the next morning between Black Hawk and troops led by General Atkinson, when the Indians were defeated and dispersed, with a considerable loss in killed and wounded. and thirty-six of their women and children made prisoners. There were eight of the troops killed and seventy-seven wounded. Black Hawk was pursued over the Wisconsin River, and at a strong position the fugitive chief made a stand with about 300 men. After a severe battle for three hours he fled, and barely escaped, with the loss of 150 of his bravest warriors and his second in command. The chief himself was finally captured by a party of friendly Winnebagoes and given up to General Steele at Prairie du Chien. Treaties were then made with the hostile tribes by which the United States acquired valuable lands on favorable terms. Black Hawk, his two sons
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fox Indians, (search)
Fox Indians, A tribe of Algonquian Indians first found by the whites in Wisconsin. They were driven south of the Wisconsin River by the Ojibwas and the French, and there incorporated with the Sac Indians. In 1900 there were 521 Sac and Fox of Mississippi at the Fox agency in Oklahoma; 77 Sac and Fox of Missouri at the Pottawatomie agency in Kansas, and 388 of the Sac and Fox of Mississippi at the Sac and Fox agency in Iowa.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hennepin, Louis 1640- (search)
pi, but never went above the Falls of St. Anthony, where he carved the arms of France on the forest trees. In July (1680) Hennepin and his companions were rescued from the Sioux by Graysolon du Luht (Duluth), and they were taken down to the Wisconsin River and made their way to Lake Michigan, and so on to Quebec. From the latter place Hennepin embarked for France, and there, in 1683, he published a full account of his explorations, which contains many exaggerations. Yet it is a work of much rica, which contained his former work, with a description of a voyage down the Mississippi, largely copied from the narrative of Leclerc. This fraud was exposed by Dr. Sparks. Hennepin never went down the Mississippi below the mouth of the Wisconsin River, yet, in that work, he claimed to be the first who descended the great river to its mouth. He lost the favor of Louis XIV., and when he endeavored to return to Canada the King ordered his arrest on his arrival there. The time of his death
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kickapoos, (search)
Kickapoos, An Algonquian tribe found by the French missionaries, towards the close of the seventeenth century, on the Wisconsin River. They were great rovers; were closely allied to the Miamis; and in 1712 joined the Foxes in an attack upon Detroit, and in wars long afterwards. They were reduced in 1747 to about eighty warriors, and when the English conquered Canada in 1763 there were about 100 Kickapoos on the Wabash. They joined Pontiac in his conspiracy, but soon made peace; and in 1779 they joined George Rogers Clarke in his expedition against the British in the Northwest. Showing hostility to the Americans, their settlement on the Wabash was desolated in 1791; but they were not absolutely subdued until the treaty at Greenville in 1795, after Wayne's decisive victory, when they ceded a part of their land for a small annuity. In the early part of the nineteenth century the Kickapoos made other cessions of territory; and in 1811 they joined Tecumseh and fought the Americ
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Marquette, Jacques 1637- (search)
Sioux, and he returned with the Hurons to Mackinaw, near the strait that connects Lakes Michigan and Huron, where he built a chapel and established the mission of St. Ignatius. Hearing of the Mississippi River, he resolved to find it, and in 1669 he prepared for the exploration of that stream, when he received orders to join Joliet in a thorough exploration of the whole course of the great river. That explorer and five others left Mackinaw in two canoes in May, 1673, and, reaching the Wisconsin River by way of Green Bay, Fox River, and a portage, floated down that stream to the Mississippi, where they arrived June 17. Near the mouth of the Ohio River savages told them it was not more than ten days journey to the sea. Voyaging down the great river until they were satisfied, when at the mouth of the Arkansas River, that the Mississippi emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, and not into the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean, they concluded to return, to avoid captivity among the Spaniards farther
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