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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 7: sea-coast defences..—Brief description of our maritime fortifications, with an Examination of the several Contests that have taken place between ships and forts, including the attack on San Juan d'ulloa, and on St. Jean d'acre (search)
gainst such descents. They did much to retard the operations of the enemy till a defensive army could be raised. The works of Flushing were never intended to close up the Scheldt, and of course could not intercept the passage of shipping; but they were not reduced by the English naval force, as has sometimes been alleged. Col. Mitchel, of the English service, says that the fleet kept up so tremendous a fire upon the batteries, that the French officers who had been present at Austerlitz and Jena, declared that the cannonade in these battles had been a mere jeu d'enfans in comparison. Yet what was the effect produced on the defences of the place by this lire, so formidable, to judge by the sound alone? The writer can answer the question with some accuracy, for he went along the entire sea-line the very day after the capitulation, and found no part of the parapet injured so as to be of the slightest consequence, and only one solitary gun dismounted, evidently by the bursting of a she
attacking force consisted of thirty-seven ships of the line, twenty-three sloops of war, twenty-eight gun, mortar and bomb vessels, thirty-six smaller vessels, eighty-two gun-boats, innumerable transports, with over forty thousand troops and an immense artillery train, making in all, says the English historian, "an hundred thousand combatants. " Yet the feeble defences at Flushing resisted successfully a fire from the fleet, compared with which French officers, who had been at Austerlitz and Jena, declared that the cannonade at those battles was a mere jeud'enfans, and were only reduced by the land forces after a siege of eighteen days. In the meantime the fortifications at Antwerp had been repaired, and after a fruitless operation of a whole month in, the river, the English were gradually forced to retreat to the mouth of the Scheldt, and finally to evacuate their entire conquest. Such was the result of an expedition comprising a naval force more than three times the number of all t
the schools of Switzerland could afford, and, having an ambition for a military career, he entered at an early age the school of the Prince of Wertemburg at Montheliard. He afterwards went to Paris, where he was for a time engaged in commercial pursuits, still devoted to military pursuits, at one time on the staff of Kellen, and afterwards in the office of the Secretary of War. In 1805 he received an appointment on the staff of Marshal Ney, with whom he passed through the campaigns of Cim, Jena, Eylau, and Spain, and was promoted to the rank of chief of staff for services in the field. In these campaigns he acquired a brilliant reputation as a staff officer and a strategist, but his success made him enemies, among whom was Berthier, the major-general and chief of staff of the Immoral army. After the capitulation of Dupont Baylen, in 1808, Napoleon determined to direct person the military operations in Spain, and Jomin was assigned to duty on the staff of Berthier; but rather t