power led to the idle prophecy of our speedy subjection, and hence the government of the United States refused to act as required by humanity and the usages of civilized warfare.
At length, moved by the clamors of the relatives and friends of the prisoners we held, and by fears of retaliation, it covertly submitted to abandon its declared purpose, and to shut its eyes while the exchanges were made by various commanders under flags of truce.
Thus some were exchanged in New York, Washington, Cairo, and Columbus, Kentucky, and by General McClellan in western Virginia and elsewhere.
On the whole, the partial exchanges were inconsiderable and inconclusive as to the main question.
The condition at the close of the year 1861, summarily stated, was that soldiers captured in battle were not protected by the usage of exchange, and citizens were arrested without due process of law, deported to distant states, and incarcerated without assigned cause.
All this by persons acting under authorit