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1655. The machine (f) shown is the form that was used in 1741, and illustrates the idea thoroughly. It is also interesting as being the first machine in which change-wheels were used, and is the germ of the screw-cutting lathe. — Thirion, 4to, Paris, 1741. Fu-see′--wind′lass. A pump-windlass with a conical barrel (g, Fig. 2133). Fuse-ex-tract′or. This implement is designed for extracting wooden fuses from shells. It has jaws which grasp the fuse while the lower part of the extrOne placed in the skin of a steam-boiler, so as to be melted and allow the discharge of the contents when a dangerous heat is reached. See Le Dictionnaire de Industrie, Manufac., Commerc., et Agricole. Par A. Baudrimar. Blanque aine et autres. Paris, 1833. Vol. I. p. 326. Fusi-ble-por′ce-lain. A silicate of alumina and soda obtained from cryolite and sand, fused and worked as glass. Cryolite is a mineral consisting of fluoride of aluminium and sodium. It is found in great abund
eously attaches itself. When an iron needle is touched by the stone, it at once points towards the North Star; from whence it has become useful to those who navigate the seas. Latini of Florence, the preceptor of Dante, in a work published in Paris in 1260, entitled the Treasure, wrote thus:— When I was in England, Friar Bacon showed me a magnet,—an ugly black stone to which iron doth willingly cling. You rub a needle upon it; the which needle, being placed upon a point, remains suspewas subdued by the Moors. An authority states that it was known in Norway previous to 1266. Dr. Gilbert, physician to Queen Elizabeth, states that P. Venutus brought a compass direct from China in 1260. See Klaproth's work on this subject, Paris, 1834; Sir Snow Harris's Rudimentary magnetism ; the researches of Biot, Stanislaus Julien, etc. About 1320, Flavio Gioja, a pilot of Positano, not far from Amalfi in the Kingdom of Naples, was instrumental in the improvement of the compass, a
by a crow's quill inserted in the tongue of the jack. As described by Mersennus ( Harmonicorum, Paris, 1636) it had 49 strings, of which the lower 30 were made of latten (flat brass wire) and the re interposed a layer of cloth or soft buff leather between the strings and the jacks. Tarquin of Paris first substituted buff leather for the quills in 1768. Schobert had a double tier of strings withe key is removed. The hammer is leather-faced, and is caught by a silken string. Marius of Paris submitted four of his instruments for examination by the Academy of Sciences in 1716, calling th in the stroke of the hammer. He died in 1831. Ignace Pleyel, another noted maker of pianos in Paris, died the same year. Zumpe made large numbers in England, 1766, and following years. The movemthe framing. The cast-iron string-frame is credited by the English writers to Pleyel & Co. of Paris. In order to enable the hammers to strike the wires, an opening is necessary completely acros
Assyrian arched drain of the Northwest palace Nimroud, and (b) one of the Southeast palace on the same old site. All the arches yet discovered are of brick, made of voussoir shape for the purpose. Some are sun-baked, and others kiln-burned. The greatest span found is 15 feet. They are usually semicircular. The only exception is that shown at b, in which ordinary bricks are used, the extrados being gained by wedges of mortar. In no modern city, perhaps, is the system so complete as in Paris. Its origin dates back as far as the year 1412. The excavations made in order to obtain the limestone of which the city is largely built, and the catacombs, were subsequently made available for sewerage purposes, and now few streets are without these subterranean channels. The principal ones convey both foul and clean water, the former flowing along a trench at the bottom and the latter through pipes supported on brackets. They have one set of openings from the street to receive the drai
y to each person. Jersey City99 gallons daily to each person. Buffalo61 gallons daily to each person. Cleveland40 gallons daily to each person. Columbus30 gallons daily to each person. Montreal, Canada55 gallons daily to each person. Toronto77 gallons daily to each person. London, England29 gallons daily to each person. Liverpool23 gallons daily to each person. Glasgow50 gallons daily to each person. Edinburgh38 gallons daily to each person. Dublin25 gallons daily to each person. Paris28 gallons daily to each person. Turin22 gallons daily to each person. Toulouse26 gallons daily to each person. Lyons20 gallons daily to each person. Leghorn30 gallons daily to each person. Berlin20 gallons daily to each person. Hamburg33 gallons daily to each person. The first water-works in the United States were planned and constructed by Mr. John Christopher Christensen, at Bethlehem, Pa., in 1762. The machinery consisted of three singleacting force-pumps, of 4-inch caliber and