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General James Longstreet, From Manassas to Appomattox, Chapter 26: Gettysburg-First day. (search)
fourteen miles. General Hunt, artillery reserve, Taneytown. First Corps, Marsh Run, six miles. Second Corps, Uniontown, twenty-two miles. Third Corps, Bridgeport, twelve miles. Fifth Corps, Union Mills, fifteen miles. Sixth Corps, Manchester, twenty-two miles. Eleventh Corps, Emmitsburg, twelve miles. Twelfth Corps, Littletown, nine miles. Kilpatrick's cavalry, Hanover, thirteen miles. Gregg's cavalry, Manchester, twenty-two miles. Buford's cavalry, Gettysburg. It shoManchester, twenty-two miles. Buford's cavalry, Gettysburg. It should be borne in mind that the field of contention was south and east of Gettysburg, so that the Union troops were from two to four miles nearer their formation for battle than were the Confederates, who had to march from two to four miles beyond the town. Referring to the map, it may be seen that the Confederate corps had two routes by which to march for concentration,--viz., from Heidlersburg to Cashtown, part of the Second Corps; on the road from Chambersburg, the First, Third, and part of
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 5. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), A review of the First two days operations at Gettysburg and a reply to General Longstreet by General Fitz. Lee. (search)
d along the road through McSherrytown, marching until between two and three o'clock in the morning, and bivouacked at a town called Brushtown; and before dawn on Thursday, the 2nd of July, a staff-officer of General Sykes, then commanding the corps, rode to my headquarters and directed me to march my men, without giving them any coffee, at once to the field. I placed the column in motion and arrived before noon in the rear of the other divisions of the corps. The Sixth corps was at Manchester on the evening of the 1st, and marched all of that night and until two o'clock P. M. on the 2nd, before it reached the field. It has been stated that Steinwehr's division of Howard's corps, dn the first day, threw up lunettes around each gun, on Cemetery Hill-solid works of such height and thickness as to defy the most powerful bolts which the enemy could throw against them-with smooth and perfectly level platforms on which the guns could be worked. This is a great error; there were
s on the left flank, with his advance at Gettysburgh. Kilpatrick's division was in the front at Hanover, where he encountered this day General Stuart's confederate cavalry, which had crossed the Potomac at Seneca Creek, and passing our right flank, was making its way toward Carlisle, having escaped Gregg's division, which was delayed in taking position on the right flank by the occupation of the roads by a column of infantry. On the thirtieth the right flank of the army was moved up to Manchester, the left still being at Emmettsburgh, or in that vicinity, at which place three corps, First, Eleventh, and Third, were collected under the orders of Major-General Reynolds. Gen. Buford having reported from Gettysburgh the appearance of the enemy on the Cashtown road in some force, Gen. Reynolds was directed to occupy Gettysburgh. On reaching that place, on the first day of July, General Reynolds found Buford's cavalry warmly engaged with the enemy, who had debouched his infantry th
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The first day at Gettysburg. (search)
l designs on the Susquehanna had been abandoned; but as Lee's corps were reported as occupying the country from Union dead West of the Seminary. From a photograph. Chambersburg to Carlisle, he ordered, for the next day's moves, the First and Eleventh corps to Gettysburg, under Reynolds, the Third to Emmitsburg, the Second to Taneytown, the Fifth to Hanover, and the Twelfth to Two Taverns, directing Slocum to take command of the Fifth in addition to his own. The Sixth Corps was left at Manchester, thirty-four miles from Gettysburg, to await orders. But Meade, while conforming to the current of Lee's movement, was not merely drifting. The same afternoon he directed the chiefs of engineers and artillery to select a field of battle on which his army might be concentrated, whatever Lee's lines of approach, whether by Harrisburg or Gettysburg,--indicating the general line of Pipe Creek as a suitable locality. Carefully drawn instructions were sent to the corps commanders as to the oc
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.42 (search)
to advance until the movements or position of the enemy gave strong assurance of success, and if the enemy took the offensive, to withdraw his own army from its actual positions and form line of battle behind Pipe Creek, between Middleburg and Manchester. The considerations probably moving him to this are not difficult to divine. Examination of the maps [see page 266] will show that such a line would cover Baltimore and Washington in all directions from which Lee could advance, and that WestmTrobriand's and Burling's brigades of the Third Corps, from Emmitsburg, at 9, and the Artillery Reserve and its large ammunition trains from Taneytown at 10:30 A. M. Sedgwick's Sixth Corps, the largest in the army, after a long night march from Manchester, thirty-four miles distant, reached Rock Creek at 4 P. M. The rapidity with which the army was assembled was creditable to it and to its commander. The heat was oppressive, the long marches, especially the night marches, were trying and had ca
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The cavalry battle near Gettysburg. (search)
lroad, where we arrived during the forenoon of July 1st. Our movements at this place illustrate to some extent the uncertainties of the campaign. After a short delay General Gregg received an order to proceed south toward Baltimore. Scarcely was the division drawn out on the road when a second order came directing him to turn about and move north as rapidly as possible toward York. Just as we were starting in the latter direction the final order came to send Huey's brigade back to Manchester, Maryland, and to march with McIntosh's and Irvin Gregg's brigades west-ward to Gettysburg. After losing some valuable time in consequence of these conflicting orders, we (McIntosh's and Gregg's brigades) advanced over a crooked road to Hanover, where we went into bivouac. At Hanover we found the streets barricaded with boxes, old carriages and wagons, hay, ladders, barbers' poles, etc., the marks of Kilpatrick's encounter with Stuart on the previous day, for the Third Division, while we we
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 2: Lee's invasion of Maryland and Pennsylvania. (search)
who fails in his duty at this hour. and then sought a good position, where he might easily concentrate his troops, and engage advantageously in the great struggle which he knew was impending. He chose the line of Big Pipe Creek, on the water-shed between the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay, southeast of Gettysburg, with the hills at Westminster in the rear. On the night of the 30th, he issued orders for the right wing, composed of General Sedgwick's (Sixth) Corps, to take position at Manchester, in the rear of the Creek; the center, consisting of Generals Slocum (Twelfth) and Sykes's (Fifth) Corps, to move toward Hanover, in advance of the Creek, and the left, nearest the foe, under General John F. Reynolds, formerly of the Pennsylvania Reserves, composed of his own (First), Sickles's (Third), and Howard's (Eleventh), to push on toward Gettysburg, and thus mask the forming of the battle-line on Pipe Creek. The Second Corps (late Couch's, and then under Hancock) was directed to t
orps, which had advanced, the day before, from Taneytown to Emmitsburg, and had there received from Meade a circular to his corps commanders, directing a concentration on the line of Pipe creek — the left of the army at Middleburg, the right at Manchester — had been preparing to move, as directed, to Middleburg, when, at 2 P. M., July 1. he received a dispatch from Howard at Gettysburg, stating that the 1st and 11th corps were there engaged with a superior force, and that Reynolds had been kier of his corps commanders that he had any notion of retreating. Both started for Gettysburg immediately, arriving at 11 P. M. During that night, our army was all concentrated before Gettysburg, save Gen. Sedgwick's (6th) corps, which was at Manchester, 30 miles distant, when, at 7 P. M., it received orders to move at once on Taney-town; which were so changed, after it had marched 7 or 8 miles, as to require its immediate presence at Gettysburg, where it arrived, weary enough, at 2 P. M. next
illing incidents and affecting details of such a strife, but have confined myself to a succinct relation of its principal events and the actors therein. My only motive is to vindicate history — do honor to tile fallen and justice to the survivors when unfairly impeached. General Meade took command of the army of the Potomac on Sunday, the twenty-eighth of June, at Frederick, Maryland. On Monday, as he states, the army was put in motion, and by Tuesday night the right flank had reached Manchester and the left occupied Emmettsburgh. General Buford's cavalry had advanced as far as Gettysburgh, and reported that the confederate army was debouching from the mountains on the Cashtown road. Upon this intelligence General Reynolds was ordered to advance on Gettysburgh with the First and Eleventh corps, which he reached early on the first of July, and found Buford's cavalry already engaged with the enemy — the corps of General Hill. Rapidly making his dispositions, General Reynolds join
Richmond, and the approaches thereto. The chief exception was the Gettysburg campaign, in 1863, involving a march of somewhat more than two hundred miles. The famous marches in this part of the country were forced ones, short in duration, but involving intense fatigue and hardship, and often compelling troops to go into battle without much-needed rest. In the hasty concentration at Gettysburg there were some very noteworthy performances by Meade's army. The Sixth Corps started from Manchester, Maryland, at dark, on July 1st. Without halting, says General Wright, except for a few moments each hour to breathe the men, and one halt of about half an hour to enable the men to make coffee, the corps was pushed on to Gettysburg, where it arrived about 4 P. M. after a march variously estimated at from thirty-two to thirty-five miles. Early in the afternoon of May 4, 1864, Grant telegraphed Burnside to bring the Ninth Corps immediately to the Wilderness. The divisions were stationed alon
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