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2. Lord John Russell's Correspondence of John, 4th Duke of Bedford, III. 224. Shall titles and estates, he continued, and names like a Pitt, that impose on an ignorant populace, give this prince the law? Wiffen, II. 523. Bedford Cor. III. 225. And he solicited Bedford to accept the post of president of the council, promising, in that case, the privy seal to Bedford's brother-in-law, Lord Gower. While the answer was waited for, it was announced chap. V.} 1763. April. to the foreign ministers that the king had confided the executive powers of government to a triumvirate, consisting of Grenville, as the head of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer, and of Egremont and Halifax, the two secretaries of state. After making this arrangement, Bute resigned, having established, by act of parliament, a standing army in America, and bequeathing to his successor his pledge to the House of Commons, to provide for the support of that army after the current year, by taxes on America.
orite part of Grenville's scheme, a new and uniform system of Courts of Admiralty was to be established. On the very next day after this memorial was presented, the king himself in council gave his sanction to the whole system. Order in Council of 5 October, 1763. Forthwith orders were issued directly to the Commander-in-chief in America that the troops under his command should give their assistance to the officers of the revenue for the effectual suppression of contraband trade. Halifax to the Commander-in-chief of his Majesty's Forces in to Egremont, 25 October, 1763. S. P. O. Am. and W. I. vol. LXXVII. Nor was there delay in following up the new law to employ the navy to enforce the Navigation Acts. To this end Admiral Colville, Admiral Colville to Lieutenant Governor of New-York. Bernard North America, 11 October, 1763. the naval Commander-in-chief on the coasts of North America, from the river St. Lawrence to Cape Florida and the Bahama Islands, became the head
not overcome his own well-founded scruples. The ministry now set no bounds to their arro- 20 gance; and resolved to brave and overcome the still obstinate resistance from the king. Exaggerating the danger from the continuance of the riots, Halifax, on Monday, obeying Bedford's directions about the disposition of the troops, wrote to the king to appoint the Marquis of Granby, their partisan, to the command in chief, insinuating against Cumberland the old and just charge of cruelty and want of popularity; while the king himself, in violation of the constitution, privately ordered Cumberland to act as captain-general. Meantime, the House of Lords warmly took up the cause of the ministers; they chap. XII.} 1765. May 20. cheered Halifax as he declared, that he who should dare to advise the king to dismiss Bedford, would be the detestation of every honest man in the nation and be held in abomination for ever; and under strong excitement, making Bedford's persecution their own, the
h, which loyalists denounced as most licentious. Associations of lawyers, said Colden, in the impotence of despair, are the most dangerous of any next to the military, and he lamented that, as yet, the faction could not be crushed. Golden to Halifax, 22 Feb. and 27 April, 1765. Still New-York continued tranquil. New England, where the chief writer against the impending Stamp Act had admitted the jurisdiction of the British parliament, was slow to anger. The child of Old England, she wr representatives; and grounds his pretence of the right to tax them entirely upon this, that they are chap. XIII.} 1765. May. virtually represented in parliament. It is said that they are in the same situation as the inhabitants of Leeds, Halifax, Birmingham, Manchester, and several other corporate towns; and that the right of electing does not comprehend above one-tenth part of the people of England. And in this land of liberty, for so it was our glory to call it, are there really me
e will be pillaged. McEvers to Colden, August. chap. XVI.} 1765. Aug. McEvers is terrified, said Colden to a friend; Colden to Sir W. Johnson, 31 August. but I shall not be intimidated; and the stamps shall be delivered in proper time; intending himself to appoint a stamp distributor. Yet dismay was spreading on every side among Sept. the crown officers. On the third of September, Coxe, the stamp officer for New Jersey, renounced his place. On the previous night, Sharpe to Halifax, 15 Sept. a party of four or five hundred, at Annapolis, pulled down a house, which Zachariah Hood, the stamp master for Maryland, was repairing, to be occupied, it was believed, for the sale of the stamps; and, shaking with terror, yet not willing to part with the unpopular office, which had promised to be worth many hundreds Sharpe to Calvert, 16 Aug., 1765. a year, he fled from the colony to lodgings in the fort of New-York, as the only safe asylum. Petition of Z. Hood to Colden, 1
22. At the same time he was constantly entreating the Secretary to conceal his correspondence. To ensure the arrival of an armed force, the Com- Chap. XXXII.} 1768. March missioners of the Customs applied directly to the Naval Commander at Halifax, Commodore Hood to Mr. Grenville, Halifax, July 11, 1768, in Grenville papers, IV. 306. and also sent a second memorial to the Lords of the Treasury. They said that a design had certainly been formed to bring them on the eighteenth of March Halifax, July 11, 1768, in Grenville papers, IV. 306. and also sent a second memorial to the Lords of the Treasury. They said that a design had certainly been formed to bring them on the eighteenth of March to Liberty Tree, and oblige them to renounce their commissions. The Governor and magistracy, they add, have not the least authority or power in this place. The mob are ready to be assembled on any occasion. Every officer who exerts himself in the execution of his duty will be exposed to their resentment. If the answer from Government to the remonstrances of the Lower House of Assembly should not be agreeable to the people, we are fully persuaded, that they will proceed to violent measures.
d hardly indulged in this day-dream for twentyfour hours, when his expectations were dashed by the account of Botetourt's appointment, and he began to quake, lest he should lose Bernard to Hillsborough, 18 September, 1768. Massachusetts also. Of a sudden he was become the most anxious and unhappy man in Boston. On Monday, the nineteenth, Bernard announ- Chap XXXVI} 1768. Sept. ced to the Council, that two regiments were expected from Ireland, that two others were coming at once from Halifax, and desired that for one of them quarters might be prepared Bernard to Hillsborough, 23 September, 1768. within the town. The process in quartering, replied the Council, See Note to the Letter of the Major part of the Council to Lord Hillsborough, 15 April, 1769, in Letters to Hillsborough. must be regulated by the Act of Parliament; and that required the civil officers to quarter and billet the officers and soldiers in his Majesty's service in the barracks; and only in case there w
afton, and by the complaints of the merchants at the diminution of exports, were content with the Parliamentary sanction of their measures, wished the controversy with the Colonies well over, and sought to lull them into acquiescence. The plan for altering the Charter of Massachusetts on which Hillsborough had been definitively resolved, Hutchinson to J. Williams of Hatfield, 29 January, 1769. was for the present, laid aside; discretionary orders were transmitted to Gage to send back to Halifax the two regiments, which were brought from that station, and to restore the regular rotation by sending two other regiments to Ireland. Hillsborough to Gage, 24 March; 1769. Bernard was given up and recalled with a promise to the London merchants that he should not be employed in the Colonies again; and the government of Massachusetts was to be confided to Hutchinson, a town-born citizen of Boston. New-York was to be secured by a confirmation of its jurisdiction over Vermont, and the pe
lection of Councillors, he disapprov- Chap. XLI.} 1769. May. ed of no less than eleven; among them of Brattle and Bowdoin, who had been chosen by a unanimous vote. Bradford's History of Massachusetts, i. 185. The House then considered the presence among them of troops, over whom the Governor avowed that the civil power in the Province did not extend. At that very time Gage, who had been intrusted with discretionary authority to withdraw the forces from Boston, ordered two regiments to Halifax, and required Bernard's written opinion respecting the proper disposition of the rest. Gage to Mackay, 4 June, 1769; Mackay to Gov. Gage, 12 June. 1769. After some hesitation, Bernard to Gage, 12 June, 1769. and after conferring with his associates, Bernard reported it to be the opinion of all that the removal of the troops at that time would have very dangerous consequences; Bernard to Gage, 19 June, 1769. and that it would be quite ruinous to the cause of the Crown to draw th
a to one of the least, where the troops were in part kept on shipboard, stived up one upon another, in part encamped on ground deeply covered with snow; where the officers and refugees, many of whom were almost penniless, suffered every extortion, and paid sixfold price for the meanest shelter over their heads; and where he found less forage and provisions for the king's troops than he left behind him, at Boston, for Washington's army. He gave out that his object was the strengthening of Halifax; but on the third of the preceding December, 1775, he had written home, that that place was in perfect security. He offered the excuse that he wanted an opportunity for the exercise of his troops in line; and was it for that end that troops, whose destination was New York, were carried six hundred miles out of their way, as though there had been no place for parade but in Nova Scotia? A chosen British army, with chosen officers, equipped with every thing essential to war, sent to correct
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