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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fulton, Robert 1765-1815 (search)
Fulton, Robert 1765-1815 Inventor; born in Robert Fulton. Little Britain, Lancaster co., Pa., in 1765; received a common-school education; became a miniature painter; and, at the age of twenty, was practising that profession in Philadelphia, by which he made Fulton's Clermont enough money to buy a small farm in Washington county, on which he placed his mother. Then he went to England; studied painting under Benjamin West; became a civil engineer; and made himself familiar with the steam engine, then just improved by Watt. He devised various machines, among them an excavator for scooping out the channels of aqueducts. He wrote and published essays on canals and canal navigation in 1795-96. He went to Paris in 1797, and remained there seven years with Joel Barlow, studying languages and sciences, and invented a torpedo. This he offered to the French and English governments, but both rejected the invention, and in December, 1806, he arrived in New York. He went to Washingto
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fundamental constitutions. (search)
Fundamental constitutions. The Fulton's birthplace. proprietors of the Carolinas, which included the territory of what was afterwards the colony of Georgia, wishing to establish an aristocratic government, in feudal form, employed the Earl of Shaftesbury and John Locke to frame one. They Fulton's torpedo. completed the task in March, 1669, and named the instrument Fundamental constitutions. It provided for two orders of nobility; the higher to consist of landgraves, or earls, the loFulton's torpedo. completed the task in March, 1669, and named the instrument Fundamental constitutions. It provided for two orders of nobility; the higher to consist of landgraves, or earls, the lower of caciques, or barons. The territory was to be divided into counties, each containing 480,000 acres, with one landgrave and two caciques. There were also to be lords of manors, who, like the nobles, might hold courts and exercise judicial functions, but could never attain to a higher rank. The four estates—proprietors, earls, barons, and commoners—were to sit in one legislative chamber. The proprietors were always to be eight in number, to possess the whole judicial power, and have the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Mayer, Alfred Marshall 1836-1897 (search)
Mayer, Alfred Marshall 1836-1897 Physicist; born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 13, 1836; left college and entered the draughtingroom of a mechanical engineer. Later he took a laboratory course and made a specialty of chemistry. He was appointed Professor of Physics and Chemistry in the University of Maryland in 1856, and three years later accepted the similar chair in Westminster College, Fulton, Mo., where he remained two years. In 1867-71 he was Professor of Astronomy in Lehigh University, and from 1871 till his death Professor of Physics in Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. In 1869 he had charge of a party sent to Burlington, Alfred Marshall Mayer Ia., to observe the solar eclipse of Aug. 7, for the United States Nautical almanac. During this eclipse he took forty-one successful photographs. In 1871-75 he contributed a series of investigations entitled Researches in Acoustics to the American journal of Science. Later these investigations led to his inventions of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Steam navigation. (search)
e company failed in 1790. Fitch's efforts in steam navigation also failed. John C. Stevens, of Hoboken, N. J., constructed a steamboat on the waters of the Hudson that was driven by a Watt engine, moved by vapor from a tubular boiler of his own invention, and a screw propeller. The same year Oliver Evans put a steam dredgingmachine on the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers propelled by a steam paddle-wheel moved by a high-pressure engine, the first of its kind ever used. Meanwhile Robert Fulton's Clermont on its trial-trip up the Hudson. Fulton, a professional painter, had conceived a plan for steamboat navigation while an inmate of Joel Barlow's residence in Paris. He met Chancellor Livingston in Paris, and interested that gentleman in his projects. He tried two experiments on the Seine in 1803. Fulton visited Scotland, where a steamboat was in operation, and received from the inventor a description of its construction. With these facts in his possession, Fulton planned, and,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Torpedoes. (search)
Torpedoes. The government of the United States, like that of Great Britain, refused to make use of Fulton's torpedoes in warfare, but it was attempted by individuals against the British blockading squadron. In New York Harbor a schooner named the Eagle was used as a torpedo-vessel. In her hold John Scudder, Jr., originator of the plot, placed ten kegs of gunpowder, with a quantity of sulphur mixed with it, in a strong cask, and surrounded it with huge stones and other missiles, which, inhe explosion, and nearly upset. Torpedoes were also placed at intervals across the Narrows, at New York, and at the entrance to the harbor of Portland. The impression prevailed in the British navy that the United States government had adopted Fulton's torpedoes, and this made the British commanders on our coast very circumspect. No doubt the fear of torpedoes saved the American coast-towns from plunder and the torch. Torpedo war- Torpedoes. A, platform; B, torpedo; C, water-tight pine-b
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), United States of America. (search)
ns, Captain Humphreys, fires into the United States frigate Chesapeake, Commodore Barron, off Chesapeake Bay, killing three and wounding eight, and takes four seamen, claiming them as British subjects......June 22, 1807 [Barron was suspended by a courtmartial for five years without pay and emoluments, for making no resistance and surrendering his ship.] American ports closed to the British, and British ships ordered from American waters......July, 1807 First steamboat, the Clermont (Fulton's), starts from New York for Albany......Sept. 14, 1807 Aaron Burr acquitted......Sept. 15, 1807 Tenth Congress, first session, convenes......Oct. 26, 1807 Speaker of the House, Joseph B. Varnum, Massachusetts. A British Order in council forbids neutral nations to trade with France or her allies except under tribute to Great Britain......Nov. 11, 1807 Napoleon's Milan decree forbids trade with England or her colonies, and confiscates any vessel paying tribute or submitting to Eng
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Missouri, (search)
of health created by act of legislature......1883 Some seventy-five of the Bald-knobber organization of Christian county are arrested in March, some on the charge of murder, others for attending unlawful assemblies of Regulators. All but the leaders are tried at Ozark and fined......August, 1887 Fifty out of seventy-eight elections under the Wood local option law result in favor of prohibition......1887 Governor Marmaduke dies......Dec. 28, 1887 Institution for deaf and dumb at Fulton burned......February, 1888 Bald-knobber leader David Walker and three accomplices tried, March and April, 1888. Sentenced to be executed on May 18; postponed. Their Bald-knobber friends, for revenge, seize and hang five of the witnesses......Nov. 14, 1888 Norman J. Coleman appointed Secretary of Agriculture......Feb. 12, 1889 Australian ballot reform act, applicable to cities and towns with a population of 5,000 and over, passed by the legislature......1889 Act of legislature