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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cape Breton (search)
Cape Breton A large island at the entrance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and separated from Nova Scotia by the narrow strait of Canso; discovered by Cabot, 1497. The French fortress Louisburg (q. v.) was situated on this island. This was taken by the New England troops in 1745. Island ceded to England, Feb. 10, 1763; incorporated with Nova Scotia, 1819. Population, 1891, 86,914.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Carleton, Sir Guy, Lord Dorchester 1724- (search)
Carleton, Sir Guy, Lord Dorchester 1724- civil and military officer; born in Stra- Guy Carleton. bane, Ireland, Sept. 3, 1724; entered the Guards at an early age, and became a lieutenant-colonel in 1748. He was aide to the Duke of Cumberland in the German campaign of 1757; was with Amherst in the siege of Louisburg in 1758; with Wolfe at Quebec (1759) as quartermaster-general; and was a brigadier-general at the siege of Belle Isle, where he was wounded. He was also quartermaster-general in the expedition against Havana in 1762, and in 1767 he was made lieutenant-governor of Quebec. The next year he was appointed governor. In 1772 he was promoted to major-general, and in 1774 was made governor-general of the Province of Quebec. In an expedition against the forts on Lake Champlain in 1775 he narrowly escaped capture; and at the close of the year he successfully resisted a siege of Quebec by Montgomery. The next spring and summer he drove the Americans out of Canada, and to
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Franklin, Benjamin 1706-1790 (search)
all this time our only protection; while we were neglected by the English government; which either thought us not worth its care, or, having no good will to some of us, on account of our different sentiments in religion and politics, was indifferent what became of us. On the other hand, the colonies have not been wanting to do what they could ill every war for annoying the enemies of Britain. They formerly assisted her in the conquest of Nova Scotia. In the war before last they took Louisburg, and put it into her hands. She made her peace with that strong fortress by restoring it to France, greatly to their detriment. In the last war, it is true, Britain sent a fleet and army, who acted with an equal army of ours, in the reduction of Canada, and perhaps thereby did more for us, than we in our preceding wars had done for her. Let it be remembered, however, that she rejected the plan we formed in the Congress at Albany, in 1754, for our own defence, by a union of the colonies;
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), French and Indian War. (search)
d war, between the colonists, and it needed only a small matter to kindle a flame of hostilities. After the capture of Louisburg (1745), the French had taken measures to extend and strengthen their dominion in America. Their power became aggressivured Oswego, on the southern shore of Lake Ontario. Loudoun proposed to confine the campaign of 1757 to the capture of Louisburg, on Cape Breton. Going there with a large land and naval armament, he was told that the French were too strong for him Abercrombie was placed in chief command in America in 1758, and Admiral Boscawen was sent with a fleet to co-operate. Louisburg, Fort Ticonderoga, and Fort Duquesne were to be attacked. Louisburg was captured, but Abercrombie, who led the troopsLouisburg was captured, but Abercrombie, who led the troops towards Lake Chainplain, failed in his attack on Ticonderoga. Fort Frontenac, at the foot of Lake Ontario, was captured; so, also, was Fort Duquesne, and its name was changed to Fort Pitt, in compliment to the great prime minister. These suecesse
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fry, Joseph 1711-1794 (search)
Fry, Joseph 1711-1794 Military officer; born in Andover, Mass., in April, 1711; was an ensign in the army that captured Louisburg in 1745, and a colonel in the British army at the capture of Fort William Henry by Montcalm in 1757. He escaped and reached Fort Edward. In 1775 Congress appointed him brigadier-general, but in the spring of 1776 he resigned on account of infirmity. He died in Fryeburg, Me., in 1794. Naval officer; born in Louisiana, about 1828: joined the navy in 1841; was promoted lieutenant in September, 1855; resigned when Louisiana seceded; was unable to secure a command in the Confederate navy, but was commissioned an officer in the army. In 1873 he became captain of the Virginius, known as a Cuban war steamer. His ship was captured by a Spanish war vessel, and he, with many of his crew, was shot as a pirate in Santiago de Cuba, Nov. 7, 1873. See filibuster.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Frye, James 1709- (search)
Frye, James 1709- Military officer; born in Andover, Mass., in 1709; served in several local offices, and in the army at the capture of Louisburg in 1755. At the opening of the Revolution he commanded the Essex Regiment (Massachusetts), taking an active part in the battle of Bunker Hill. He afterwards commanded a brigade of the army investing Boston. He died Jan. 8, 1776.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), George (Augustus) 1683- (search)
t with her opponent. This caused France to declare war against Great Britain. The French had built the strong fort of Louisburg, on the island of Cape Breton, after the treaty of Utrecht, and, because of its strength, it was called the Gibraltar o the expedition. After waiting some time, the colonial forces, under Sir William Pepperell, sailed, April 4, 1745, for Louisburg. Warren joined them at Canso early in May, and on the 11th the combined land forces, 4,000 strong, debarked at Gabarusbined fleet and army prepared for attack on June 29. Unable to make a successful resistance, the fortress, the town of Louisburg, and the island of Cape Breton were surrendered to the English on the 28th. This event mortified the pride of France, king a blow. Anchoring at Chebucto (now Halifax), D'Anville died there by poison, it is believed. With the capture of Louisburg the war ended in the colonies. By a treaty made at Aix-la-Chapelle, all prisoners and property seized by either party
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gibson, James 1690-1752 (search)
Gibson, James 1690-1752 Merchant; born in London in 1690; became a merchant in Boston, Mass.; took part in the capture of Louisburg, and after its surrender superintended the removal of the prisoners to France. He published an account of the Louisburg expedition, under the title of A Boston merchant of 1745. He died in the West Indies, while on a trading expedition, in 1752.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gilbert, Thomas 1714-1796 (search)
Gilbert, Thomas 1714-1796 Royalist; born in 1714; took part in the capture of Louisburg in 1745, and also in the attack on Crown Point in 1755. He raised a company of 300 royalists at the request of General Gage, but was obliged to leave the country, as the legislature of Massachusetts had declared him a public enemy. He died in New Brunswick in 1796.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gridley, Richard 1711-1796 (search)
Gridley, Richard 1711-1796 Military officer; born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 3, 1711; was a skilful engineer and artillerist; and chief engineer in the siege of Louisburg, in 1745. He entered the service, as colonel of infantry, in 1755; was in the expedition to Crown Point, under General Winslow, planned the fortifications at Lake George (Fort George and Fort William Henry); served under Amherst; and was with Wolfe at Quebec. He retired as a British officer on half-pay for life. Espousing the cause of the patriots, he was appointed chief engineer of the army that gathered at Cambridge; planned the works on Bunker Hill and Dorchester Heights; and was in the battle there, in which he was wounded. He was active in planning the fortifications around Boston, and in September, 1775, he was commissioned a major-general in the provincial army of Massachusetts. He was commander of the Continental artillery until superseded by Knox. He died in Stoughton, Mass., June 20, 1796.
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