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r advance, under Lieutenant-General Ewell, I shall not be able to give you as full and reliable reports of the movements of his corps up to the battle of Gettysburgh as of the main body of the army, which crossed the Potomac two days after his corps. I learn that Ewell's crossed on the twenty-second June--one portion at Shepherdstown and another at Williamsport, and that the two columns united at Hagerstown. From the latter place, one division — Rhodes's, I think — was pushed on through Greencastle and Chambersburgh to Carlisle, making at all three of these places considerable captures of army supplies — hats, shoes, clothing, and medical stores. Another division — Early's — turned to the right from Chambersburgh and moved on York, on the Northern Central Railroad, when, after a short and inconsiderable engagement with a body of Pennsylvania militia, in which quite a number were taken prisoners, the town surrendered. Early then pushed on to Wrightsville, on the south side of th
und the enemy's line of communication, and was at one time in sight of the enemy's ammunition-train. If the one hundred men had been furnished him he could have destroyed this train, and the enemy would have been out of ammunition at Gettysburgh. Capturing a messenger of Jeff Davis, and destroying a pontoon-bridge at Williamsport, Captain Dahlgren returned to headquarters. Then one hundred men from the Sixth New-York cavalry were furnished him, and he started out immediately again. At Greencastle and Waynesboro Captain Dahlgren had several fights with the enemy. At the latter place he arrived just in time to prevent the citizens from paying tribute to Stuart's men, under Jenkins. He captured four hundred men and two pieces of artillery, when the enemy came upon him in superior force, recaptured all except twenty-two prisoners and the two guns. Capt. Dahlgren had his horse killed, and escaped by crawling into the bushes. He made the citizens arm themselves and assist in defendi
give way to the guerrilla army of plunderers. Greencastle being but five miles north of the Maryland line,lf. He then demanded to know what forces were in Greencastle, and what fortifications. Major Rowe told him the to burn and destroy, and that he would begin at Greencastle. Major Rowe informed him that he could burn GreeGreencastle, but that he would end his depredations and his mundane career at about that point. Jenkins pondered ae same intensely strategic movements exhibited at Greencastle were displayed here. Several were thrown forward Many escaped in various ways, and the people of Greencastle captured the guard of one negro train and discharn of the county. From this point he fell back to Greencastle and south of it, thence he proceeded to Mercersbuof the county, spending several days in and about Greencastle and Waynesboro, and giving Welsh Run a pretty int A concentration of our men at Chambersburgh, or Greencastle, or Mercersburgh would have left twenty-five thou
o this point in Pennsylvania, are remarkably fine. Considerable corn has been planted, but wheat seems to be the grain best adapted to the soil. You see no such fields, in extent, as we have in Virginia. A lot rarely exceeds fifty acres. Middleburgh, five miles from Hagerstown, is on the dividing line between Maryland and the Keystone State. About half of it is in the former, and in this part of the town I was glad to witness one or two secession demonstrations. From this point to Greencastle, where we encamped on Friday night, distant nine miles, we passed a succession of Dutch farms, all small, but highly improved, with grain nearly ready for the sickle. The North and South-Mountain, a continuation of the Virginian mountains, causes this country to resemble the Virginia Valley very much. The lands are no better than ours. The people are exceedingly ignorant. I saw no houses indicating refinement. Were I to tell you how profoundly ignorant some of these Dutch are, you
h-east of Gettysburgh until that time. In the mean time our cavalry were rapidly developing the line of the enemy's retreat. Instead of moving toward Chambersburgh, which is almost south-west of Gettysburgh, Lee took a shorter line of retreat, and at once seized the two upper gaps in the South-Mountain, namely, the gap leading from Fairfield through Jack's Mountain to Waynesboro, known as Fountaindale Gap, and the gap through which passes the road from Emmnittsburgh to Waynesboro and Greencastle, known as Monterey Gap. Then by the country roads, in a south-westerly direction, toward Hagerstown. There were then left to General Meade two routes to pursue-one to follow directly on the heels of the enemy, and fight him in these gaps, or march at once for Harmon's, Braddock's, Turner's, and Crampton's Gaps, in South-Mountain range-all below those occupied by the enemy. The latter route was adopted, involving an average of march of from fifteen to twenty miles further than the e