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Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK II. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORLD AND THE ELEMENTS., CHAP. 2. (2.)—OF THE FORM OF THE WORLDI may remark, that the astronomy of our author is, for the most part, derived from Aristotle; the few points in which they differ will be stated in the appropriate places.. (search)
figure of this kind return everywhere into itselfThis doctrine was maintained by Plato in his Timæus, p. 310, and adopted by Aristotle, De Cœlo, lib. ii. cap. 14, and by Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii 47. The spherical form of the world, ou)rano\s, and its circular motion are insisted upon by Ptolemy, in the commencement of his astronomical treatise Mega/lh Su/ntacis, Magna Constructio, frequently referred to by its Arabic title Almagestum, cap. 2. He is supposed to have made his observations at Alexandria, between the years 125 and 140 A.D. His great astronomical work was translated into Arabic in the year 827; the original Greek text was first printed in 1538 by Grynæus, with a commentary by Theon. George of Trebisond published a Latin version of it in 1541, and a second was published by Camerarius in 1551, along with Ptolemy's other works. John Muller, usually called Regiomontanus, and Purback published an abridgement of the Almagest in 1541. For an account of Ptolemy I may refer to the a
and legal rights would be respected, and that no white man should interrupt them on their lands. Yoakum, History of Texas, vol. i., p. 858. Yet a different inference might be drawn from one of his anecdotes. He says that (in October or November, 1835) the appearance of Breese's company at Nacogdocheb had a fine effect on the Cherokee Indians, a large number of whom were then in town. Their fine uniform caps and coats attracted the notice of the chief Bolles. He inquired if they were Jackson's men. Certainly they are, said Stern. Are there more coming? Yes, was the reply. How many more? asked Bolles. Stern told him to count the hairs on his head and he would know. In twenty minutes the Indians had all left town. Ibid., vol. II., p. 23. It is quite evident indeed from Yoakum's own account that the Indians were not restrained by treaty obligations, but by the presence of a competent force, and that the cause of Texan independence was put to the utmost hazard from t
ion to be furnished you. The Legislature can also adjourn to some other place. You can do no further good here now, and I think you should take the public archives under your especial charge. The Governor said he would do so, went back, wrote a message to the Legislature, took charge of the archives as he had promised, put them in a place of safety, and in forty-eight hours was back at the capital, though in that time, at General Beauregard's earnest solicitation, he had gone through Jackson, Tennessee, to confer with him. In putting Floyd in command at Nashville, General Johnston used the following language, as appears by a memorandum taken at the time by Colonel Mackall: I give you command of the city; you will remove the stores. My only restriction is, do not fight a battle in the city. General Johnston also telegraphed Colonel D. P. Buckner, at Clarksville, February 16th: Do not destroy the army stores, if their destruction will endanger the city. If you can
of the enemy, and it must fall back to some central point where it can guard the two main railroads to Memphis, i. e., from Louisville and from Charleston; Jackson, Tennessee, would probably be the best position for such an object, with strong detachments at Humboldt and Corinth, and with the necessary advance-guards. The Memphie to his aid. Governor Harris informs the writer that he received a telegram from General Beauregard asking him on his return to Nashville to come by way of Jackson, Tennessee, which he did by a special train. General Beauregard requested him to visit General Johnston at Murfreesboro, and tell him that he (General Beauregard) thought he had best concentrate at or near Jackson or Corinth, in that region. Governor Harris went to Nashville, where he remained a short time, and then proceeded to Murfreesboro. This must have been before the 23d of February, when Nashville was finally abandoned. He delivered General Beauregard's message to General Johnston, wh
ffected in General Johnston's behalf which both he and Van Dorn had hoped. Van Dorn was now called to meet General Johnston at Corinth, and was ordered to hasten his army by the quickest route to that point. Through unavoidable causes, only one of his regiments arrived in time to participate in the battle of Shiloh. Soon after, however, his army reinforced Beauregard. Beauregard left Nashville sick, February 14th, to take charge in West Tennessee, and made his headquarters at Jackson, Tennessee, February 17th. He was still prostrated by disease, which partially disabled him throughout that entire campaign. He was, however, ably seconded by Bragg and Polk, who commanded his two grand divisions or army corps. Writing to General Johnston March 2d, he says: General Bragg is with me. We are trying to organize every thing as rapidly as possible ; and, again, on the 6th: I am still unwell, but am doing the best I can. I nominally assumed the command yesterday. He directed the m
tral Railroad from New Orleans runs west of and nearly parallel with the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, gradually approaching it, and forming a junction with it at Jackson, Tennessee. Still farther west, the Memphis Railroad to Bowling Green runs northeast, crossing the Mobile & Ohio at Humboldt. With the Tennessee River as the Federal between General Beauregard and General Johnston shows that the former was advised of all of General Johnston's movements. General Beauregard wrote from Jackson, Tennessee, March 2d, to General Johnston: I think you ought to hurry up your troops to Corinth by railroad, as soon as practicable, for here or thereabouts willent events. This bold stroke was, however, prevented by the following orders from General Beauregard, who determined to await General Johnston's arrival: Jackson, Tennessee, March 17, 1862. Dear General: I telegraphed you yesterday, via Corinth, my views relative to the two strategic points, Chamberlain and Corinth (accordin
r Hardee's command for the battle. Hardee's three brigades numbered 6,789 effectives, and Gladden added 2,235 more — an effective total in the front line of 9,024. Bragg commanded the second line. Withers's division formed his right wing. Jackson's brigade, 2,208 strong, was drawn up three hundred yards in rear of Gladden, its left on the Bark road. Chalmers's brigade was on Jackson's right, en echelon to Gladden's brigade, with its right on a fork of Lick Creek. Clanton's cavalry was Jackson's right, en echelon to Gladden's brigade, with its right on a fork of Lick Creek. Clanton's cavalry was in rear of Chalmers's, with pickets to the right and front. In this order the division bivouacked. General Bragg's left wing was made up of three brigades, under General D. Ruggles. Colonel R. L. Gibson commanded the right brigade, resting with his right on the Bark road. Colonel Preston Pond commanded the left brigade, near Owl Creek, with an interval between him and Gibson. About three hundred yards in the rear of these two brigades, opposite the interval, with his right and left flank
o the right, restoring his order of battle, and brought up Jackson's brigade into the interval. The conflict was severe, but Hindman's victorious troops, with Polk on their left, and Jackson's fresh brigade on their right. Gladden's brigade, which r. General Johnston in person directed the movement of Jackson's brigade, which belonged to the second line, and was now eavy firing, supported by Wirt Adams's regiment. While Jackson's brigade was attacking McClernand's left flank, and Hindmrevious orders. General Johnston in person put Stewart's, Jackson's, Bowen's, and Statham's brigades into the fight, leadingrigade to Gibson's right; the next was Gladden's, and then Jackson's brigade. When Breckinridge's two brigades came up, under Bowen and Statham, they occupied the ground between Jackson's and Chalmers's, which was on the extreme right. But in the rupplied, for service the next morning. By reference to Jackson's report of his last charge (page 624), it will be seen th
is artillery, which engaged the Confederates, while Crittenden aligned his division on Nelson's right; and McCook, whose division was beginning to arrive, took position on the right of Crittenden. The line, when formed, had a front of one mile and a half. Buell had with him, also, two fragments of Grant's army that he had picked up, each about 1,000 strong. The forces on the Confederate right, which encountered Nelson, were extremely fragmentary. Chalmers's brigade, and the remains of Jackson's, which had fallen to pieces in the night, were there. The regiments of Gladden's brigade were represented by small bands of one or two hundred men, under various commanders. Colonel Deas, with 224 men of Gladden's brigade, was aided by the Fourth Kentucky, which had become detached from Trabue's brigade. In a charge he lost half of them. The First Tennessee from Stephens's brigade, the One Hundred and Fifty-fourth Tennessee from Johnson's, and the Crescent Regiment from Pond's, which
little band, encouraging all with words of kindness and confidence. He frequently assailed overwhelming numbers to prevent them securing the passage of Stone Bridge, beyond which heavy divisions were waiting to cross. He was only relieved when Jackson's Brigade and Hampton's Legion were brought up; then joining with Evans, their combined forces formed a longer and better line, and repelled the enemy with more ease, although the strength and precision of the opposing artillery made fearful havn; and our small force under Bee gradually fell back toward the Robinson House, against vast odds, suffering severely at every yard. Johnston and Beauregard furiously galloped to the left, to retrieve our failing fortunes. Hampton's Legion and Jackson's Virginia Brigade had already arrived to succor Bee, and were ordered to lie down behind a bit of rising ground, so as to form the centre of a new line when Bee retreated thus far. Riding up to Jackson, who, on a mound, sat his horse like a sta
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