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(Fig. 313) made of pieces of timber which were cut into short arcs of the required circle, placed edgewise, and bolted together, breaking joint. Several roofs in Paris and London are, or were, of this construction. De Lorme's arched beam. It was a disadvantage of this plan that the pieces were necessarily short, as they would otherwise present a cross grain to the strain. Imperial riding-house. The largest roof of one span, in its day, was that of the Imperial Riding-House at Moscow, built in 1790 (Fig. 314). The span is 235 feet. The members of the arched beam are notched together (Fig. 315) so as to prevent slipping on each other. The ends of the arched beam are prevented from spreading by a tiebeam, and the arch and tie are connected together by vertical suspension-rods and diagonal braces. Notched arch-beam. Colonel Emy's arched beam (1817) is constructed on a principle differing from both of the foregoing (Fig. 316). The ribs in this roof are formed of plan
en on exhibition in that city, together with other Revolutionary relics. The following inscription, taken from Leviticus XXV. 10, surrounds it near the top: Proclaim liberty throughout the land, unto all the inhabitants thereof. Great bell of Moscow. The Russians have surpassed all other European peoples in the size of their bells. The great bell of Moscow, cast by the orders of the Empress Anne in 1734, was by far the largest made by them, being 21 feet in hight, and weighing 193 tons.Moscow, cast by the orders of the Empress Anne in 1734, was by far the largest made by them, being 21 feet in hight, and weighing 193 tons. It remained suspended only until 1737, when it fell in consequence of a fire, and remained partially buried in the earth until 1837, when it was raised, and now forms the dome of a chapel formed by excavating the earth underneath it. It has been denied that this bell ever was suspended. Says a correspondent of the New York observer : In Russia the bell is an instrument of music for the worship of God as truly and really as the organ in any other country. This is the key to what wou
h-loaders, having a removable chamber, insertable in the breech, where it was wedged, for the purpose of containing the charge of powder. The balls originally used were of stone, in some cases weighing 800 pounds or more, as is the case of the Mohammed II. gun, mentioned presently. Fig. 1064 shows the relative sizes, and, to some extent, the mode of construction, of a number of the larger and more celebrated of the pieces of ordnance. a is the Tzar-Pooschka, the great bronze gun of Moscow, cast in 1586. Bore, 122 in. long, 36 in. diameter; chamber 70 in. long, 19 in. diameter; total exterior length, 210 in.; weight, 86,240 pounds. b, great bronze gun of Bejapoor, India, Malik-IMydan, the Master of the field. Cast in 1548. Bore, 28.5 in.; total length, 170.6 in.; weight, 89,600 pounds. c, bronze cannon of Mohammed II., A. D. 1464. Bore, 25 in.; total length, 17 ft.; weight, 41,888 pounds. d, the Dulle-Griete, of Ghent, Holland. Wroughtiron, made in 1430. Bore, 2
uthor, Sponges, madam; I believe they grow on trees. The annals of China place the use of the leaf at a very remote date. It was introduced into Japan in the ninth century A. D., but was not brought to Europe till some seven centuries later. It was about the middle of the seventeenth century (1664) that the East India Company presented to the queen of England a package of two pounds of tea, then valued at forty shillings a pound. About the same time some Russian ambassadors returned to Moscow, bringing some carefully packed green tea, which was esteemed a great delicacy. The overland tea is still the best. An advertisement in the Mercurius Politicus, September 30, 1658, is as follows:— That excellent and by all physitians approved China drink, called by Chineans Tcha, by other nations tay, alias tee, is sold at the Sultana Head Coffee-house, London. I did send for a cup of tee, a China drink, of which I had never drunk before. — Pepys, 1660. In 1667 the British E