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), Gettysburg, or Chickamauga. In Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War, by Lieutenant-Colonel G. F. R. Henderson, a British military expert, is a complete list of killed and wounded in great battles from 1704 to 1882, inclusive. Since Eylau, 1807, there has been no great battle in which the losses of the victor—the punishment he withstood to gain his victory—equal the twenty-seven per cent. of the Confederates in their victory at Chickamauga. The Henderson tables give the losses 003837 Russians, 52,00020,000 Kunnersdorf, 1759Allies, 70,00014,00031,0002720 Prussians, 43,00017,000 Torgau, 1760Prussians, 46,00012,00024,0002226 Austrians, 60,00012,000 Austerlitz, 1805French, 65,0009,00025,0001613 Allies, 83,00016,000 Eylau, 1807French, 70,00020,00042,0003328 Russians, 63,50022,000 Heilsberg, 1807Russians, 84,00010,00022,0001311 French, 85,00012,000 Friedland, 1807French, 75,00010,00034,0002313 Russians, 67,00024,000 Aspern, 1809Austrians, 75,00020,00045,00026
, VIII., 81. Excelsior Brigade, IX., 78. Exchange of prisoners: VII., 97-122; in the East and West, specified places for, VII., 99; conditions and terms of, as put forth by various officials of both sides; also controversies and disagreements in regard to, VII., 100, 102 seq.; Confederate agent for the, VII., 101; exchanges stopped by order of Gen. Grant, VII., 103, 118; four Union officers prominent in the arrangements for, VII., 105; continuation of, in the usual way, VII., 108; in the East and West, continuation of, in spite of suspension of cartel, VII., 112; demand for and pleadings on all sides in favor of the re-establishment of, VII., 118, 120, 122; various propositions for, VII., 120, 122; again begun after January 24, 1865; VII., 122; exchange agents for the North and South, agreement of, for the raising of money for prisoners' use, VII., 174. Exhibition at Philadelphia, Pa., IX., 30. Eylau, losses at, X., 120, 140. Ezra Church, Ga., III., 134.
The charge of Murat at Eylan. It is at Eylan that Murat always appears in his most terrible aspect. This battle, fought in mid-winter, in 1807, was the most important and bloody one that had then occurred. France and Russia had never before opposed such strength to each other, and a complete victory on either side would have settled the fate of Europe; Bonaparte remained in possession of the field, and that was all; no victory was ever so like a defeat. The filed of Eylau was covered with snow, and the little ponds that lay scattered over it were frozen sufficiently hard to bear the artillery. Seventy-one thousand men on one side, and eighty-five thousand on the other, arose from the frozen field on which they had slept the night of February, without tent or covering, to battle for a continent.--Augurea, on the left, was utterly routed in the morning. Advancing through a snow storm so thick he could not see the enemy, the Russian cannon mowed down his ranks with their d
hools of Switzerland could afford, and, having an ambition for a military career, he entered at an early age the school of the Prince of Wertemburg at Montheliard. He afterwards went to Paris, where he was for a time engaged in commercial pursuits, still devoted to military pursuits, at one time on the staff of Kellen, and afterwards in the office of the Secretary of War. In 1805 he received an appointment on the staff of Marshal Ney, with whom he passed through the campaigns of Cim, Jena, Eylau, and Spain, and was promoted to the rank of chief of staff for services in the field. In these campaigns he acquired a brilliant reputation as a staff officer and a strategist, but his success made him enemies, among whom was Berthier, the major-general and chief of staff of the Immoral army. After the capitulation of Dupont Baylen, in 1808, Napoleon determined to direct person the military operations in Spain, and Jomin was assigned to duty on the staff of Berthier; but rather than se
and to the most miserable fare, were reduced to such a state of frenzy that, unable to endure the agonies of the campaign, they vehemently demanded that their General would lead them to battle or turn their march homewards. The General accepted the former demand, and having retreated with great loss, closely pursued by the French, arrived on the 6th of February at a position where he resolved to try the fortune of a general engagement. On the 7th occurred the great winter battle of Preuss-Eylau, over a country glittering with snow and frozen lakes, and during a violent storm, which drove with piercing cold the snow-drifts through the air. Through that trying winter, in a region terrible for the rigor of its climate, the French were marching and fighting as if no such season as winter existed. Spring found them where winter had left them — in the field — and summer brought forth the harvest which they had planted under the snows. On the 27th of July, Napoleon reaped the fruits of