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Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Review of Bates' battle of Gettysburg. (search)
— at Gettysburg; and yet under these circumstances was, according to Dr. Bates, able to thinks the Confederate commander lost the use of over 20,000 men in this time by straggling! At this rate it was great waste of blood for General Meade to fight at all. Had he allowed General Lee to march about in Pennsylvania for a month longer the whole Confederate army would have melted away, and all the advantages of Gettysburg been won without the sacrifices. The truth is this: General Lee left Culpeper on his march northward, June 10th, with not over 60,000 effective troops of all arms. He had some severe cavalry fighting east of the Blue Ridge, and dispersed or captured Milroy's force at Winchester. At this last place he was joined by a small body of cavalry, a battalion of infantry and a battery. This addition did not compensate for the losses in battle, the detachment left to guard the prisoners taken from Milroy, and to protect communication to the Potomac. So that General Lee cro
ere withdrawn a few miles inland to Petersburgh, to watch this new combination. It was known that heavy reenforcements had reached McClellan, and he seemed inclined to advance up both banks and attempt to destroy our water-batteries at Fort Darling, so as to allow the gunboats to proceed up the river to Richmond. He was closely watched by Lee, who had also been intently studying the programme of General Pope, now industriously engaged in gathering a large army north of the Rappahannock at Culpeper, with a strong advance-guard south of it near Gordonsville. It was well known to us that great expectations were entertained of Pope's movement towards Richmond, and that he had made extravagant boasts of his intentions to turn the tide of fortune, and sack Richmond in an incredibly brief time. But as this new army was preparing to move round our left, while watching McClellan with our centre and right more than a hundred miles away from it, divisions and bickerings seemed to exist in
e miles to his right. The passage of the Rapidan, it was well known, would be hotly disputed, and particularly at the railroad-bridge, for all the best roads to Culpeper cross and recross in the neighborhood. When, therefore, our advance appeared on the south bank, fierce and heavy cannonading ensued, which lasted several hours,rmishing with the enemy, and driving in their outposts. Most of the firing seemed to be in the direction of Cedar Run, or Cedar Mountain, about seven miles from Culpeper, where the enemy were drawn up in order of battle, with an effective strength of more than thirty thousand men, well supplied with artillery. The day was too fad to this — that large masses of men were so panic-stricken, that, with or without officers, they rushed to the rear, and did not stop running until they reached Culpeper. While all had reason enough to rejoice in the signal discomfiture of a foe who had been laying waste the land with fire and sword, many mourned the untimely
ay the average infantryman's wardrobe was what he had on. Only that and nothing more. At the first start from camp many would burden themselves with much more than the above, but after a few miles tramp the roadside would be sprinkled with the cast-away articles. There seemed to be a difference between Eastern and Western troops in this respect, for reasons which I will not attempt now to analyze, for Grant says (Memoirs, vol. II., pp. 190-191):-- I saw scattered along the road, from Culpeper to Germania Ford, wagon-loads of new blankets and overcoats thrown away by the troops to lighten their knapsacks; an improvidence I had never witnessed before. It was a way the Army of the Potomac had of getting into light marching order. When the infantry were ordered in on a charge, they always left their knapsacks behind them, which they might or might not see again. And whenever they were surprised and compelled to fall back hastily, they were likely to throw aside everything th
s used as clothes-lines, from which depended socks, shoes, here and there a shirt, perhaps a towel or handkerchief. But if the weather was cool the wash did not hang out in this way. When it became necessary to cross a stream in the night, huge fires were built on its banks, with a picket at hand, whose duty it was to keep them burning until daylight, or until the army had crossed. A greater number of mishaps occurred in fording by night than by day even then. During Meade's retreat from Culpeper, in the fall of 1863, --it was the night of October 11,--my company forded the Rappahannock after dark, and went into camp a few rods away from the ford; and I remember what a jolly night the troops made of it when they came to this ford. At short intervals I was awakened from slumber by the laughter or cheers of the waders, as they made merry at the expense of some of their number, who came out after immersion using language which plainly indicated their disbelief in that kind of baptism
pended at the side; its wooden bucket for water, and iron slush-bucket for grease, hanging from the hind axle; and its canvas cover, which when closely drawn in front and rear, as it always was on the march, made quite a satisfactory close carriage. As a pleasure carriage, however, they were not considered a success. When the Third Corps was wintering at Brandy Station in 1863-4 the concert troupe, which my company boasted was engaged to give a week of evening entertainments not far from Culpeper, in a large hexagonal stockade, which would seat six or seven hundred persons, and which had been erected for the purpose by one Lieutenant Lee, then on either General French's or General Birney's staff — I cannot now say which. To convey us thither over the intervening distance of four or five miles, as I now remember, we hired a mule-driver with his army wagon. More than twenty-three years have since elapsed, but those twelve or fourteen rides, after dark, across the rough country and f
e Heights, Va., 367 Century Magazine, 407-8 Chancellorsville, 71, 331,349,388 Chattanooga, 262,270,362,403 Chicago, 135 City Point, Va., 115, 121,320,350-51 Clemens, Samuel, 106 Cold Harbor, 238 Committee on Military Affairs, 315 Confederate States Army. Armies: Army of Northern Virginia, 235, 406-7; State Troops, Infantry: 1st Georgia, 270 Copperheads, 20 Corps badges, 250-68,368 Corse, John M., 400-401 Covington, Ky., 100 Crook, George, 267 Culpeper, Va., 317,353 Davis, Jefferson, 64 Davis, W. S., 329 Dayton, L. M., 401 Desertion, 157-63 Douglas, Stephen A., 15 Draft,68-69,215-16 Dry Tortugas, 156 Eaton, Joseph H., 130 Ellis, George, 51 Ely's Ford, Va., 384 Embler, A. Henry, 266 Emory, William H., 265 Enlisting, 34-42, 198-202 Envelopes (patriotic), 64-65 Everett, Edward, 16 Executions, 157-63 Faneuil Hall, 31,45 First Bull Run, 27, 251-53,298, 340,356 Flags, 338-40 Foraging, 231-49
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Jackson at Harper's Ferry in 1861. (search)
team. Brigadier-General Harman was ordered to take command of the trains and of all troops that might report en route. (See map, page 113.) About sunset we took train; our departure was an exciting and affecting scene. At Charlottesville, in The Court-House, Charlestown, Va., where John Brown and his associates were tried and sentenced. From a photograph. the night, the Monticello Guards, Captain W. B. Mallory, and the Albemarle Rifles, under Captain R. T. W. Duke, came aboard. At Culpeper a rifle company joined us, and just as the sun rose on the 18th we reached Manassas. The Ashbys and Funsten had gone on the day before to collect their cavalry companies, and also the famous Black horse cavalry, a superb body of men and horses, under Captains John Scott and Welby Carter of Fauquier. By marching across the Blue Ridge, they were to rendezvous near Harper's Ferry. Ashby had sent men on the night of the 17th to cut the wires between Manassas Junction and Alexandria, and
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Virginia scenes in 1861. (search)
a soldier's pocket-book and grimed with gunpowder, containing assurance of the safety of our own. At nightfall a train carrying more wounded to the hospitals at Culpeper made a halt at Bristoe; and, preceded by men holding lanterns, we went in among the stretchers with milk, food, and water to the sufferers. One of the first disblankets, and dead horses. We were glad enough to turn away and gallop homeward. With August heats and lack of water, Bristoe was forsaken for quarters near Culpeper, where my mother went into the soldiers' barracks, sharing soldiers' accommodations, to nurse the wounded. In September quite a party of us, upon invitation, virm-stained from long and honorable service in the field. But it was only a little while after it had been bestowed that there arrived one day at our lodgings in Culpeper a huge, bashful Mississippi scout,--one of the most daring in the army,--with the frame of a Hercules and the face of a child. He had been bidden to come there
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., Responsibilities of the first Bull Run. (search)
d quickly provided for in Winchester. I was the only judge of the practicable ; and if practicable refers to the whole sentence — as much to sending the sick to Culpeper as to make the movement. Still he says ( Rise and fall, I., 347): His [my] letters of the 12th and 15th expressed his doubts about his power to retire from befo. But the word is still in his harsh indorsement. He also had this passage stricken out: The delay of sending the sick, nearly seventeen hundred in number, to Culpeper, would have made it impossible to arrive at Manassas in time. They were therefore provided for in Winchester ; and substituted this: Our sick, nearly seventeen hundred in number, were provided for in Winchester. Being ordered to send the sick to Culpeper as well as to move to Manassas, it was necessary to account for disobedience, which my words did, and which his substitute for them did not. Mr. Davis ( Rise and fall, I., 359) expresses indignation that, as he says, among the artic
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