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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Calvert, Leonard (search)
Calvert, and received there a kind reception from Governor Harvey. They tarried nine days, and then entered the Potomac River, which delighted them. The colonists sailed up the river to the Heron Islands, and, at a little past the middle of March, landed on one of them, which they named St. Clement's. On the 25th they offered the sacrifice of the mass, set up a huge cross hewn from a tree, and knelt in solemn devotion around it. Going farther up, they entered a river which they called St. George; and on the right bank founded the capital of the new province with military and religious ceremonies, and called it St. Mary's. That scene occurred March 27, 1634. It remained the capital of Maryland until near the close of the century, when it speedily became a ruined town, and now scarcely a trace of it remains. They found the natives friendly, and awed into reverence for the white men by the flash and roar of cannon, which they regarded as lightning and thunder. The successful medic
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Champlain, Lake, operations on (search)
ilors, and marines, conveyed in two The Royal savage. this engraving was made from a drawing in water-colors, of the Royal savage, found by the late Benson J. Lossing among the papers of General Schuyler, and gave the first positive information as to the design and appearance of the Uinion flag (q. V.), displayed by the Americans at Cambridge on Jan. 1, 1776. the drawing exhibited, in proper colors, the thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, with the British union (the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew) on a blue field in the dexter corner. sloops-of-war, three gunboats, and forty-seven long-boats. They landed on Saturday afternoon, and continued a work of destruction until ten o'clock the next day. General Hampton, who was then at Burlington, only 20 miles distant, with 4,000 troops, made no attempt to oppose the invaders. The block-house, arsenal, armory, and hospital at Plattsburg were destroy- Scene of Arnold's naval battle. this scene is between Port Kent and
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Endicott, John, 1589- (search)
by John Winthrop. In 1636 he was sent with Captain Underhill, with about ninety men, on an expedition against Indians on Block Island and the Pequods. Mr. Endicott was deputy-governor of Massachusetts several years, and also governor, in which office he died, March 15, 1665. Bold, energetic, sincere, and bigoted, he was the strongest of the Puritans, and was severe in the execution of laws against those who differed from the prevailing theology of the colony. He was one of the most persistent persecutors of the Quakers, and stood by unmoved, as governor, when they were hanged in Boston; and so violent were his feelings against the Roman Catholics, and anything that savored of popery, that he caused the red cross of St. George to be cut out of the military standard. He opposed long hair on men, and insisted that the women should use veils in public assemblies. During his several administrations many were punished for the slightest offences, and four Quakers were hanged in Boston.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Falmouth, treaties at. (search)
Falmouth, treaties at. The Penobscot and Norridgewock Indians sent delegates to a conference in Boston, June 23, 1749, and there proposed to treat for peace and friendship with the people of New England. A treaty was soon afterwards made at Falmouth, N. H., between them and the St. Francis Indians, by which peace was established. At a conference held at St. George's, in York county, Me., Sept. 20, 1753, the treaty at Falmouth was ratified by more than thirty of the Penobscot chiefs; but the next year, when hostilities between France and England began anew, these Eastern Indians showed signs of enmity to the English. With 500 men, the governor of Massachusetts, accompanied by Colonel Mascarene, a commissioner from Nova Scotia, Major-General Winslow, commander of the forces, and other persons of rank, embarked at Boston to hold another conference with these Indians at Falmouth. There, at the last of June, 1754, former treaties were ratified.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Flag, National. (search)
Flag, National. Every colony had its peculiar ensign, and the army and navy of the united colonies, at first, displayed various flags, some colonial, others regimental, and others, like the flag at Fort Sullivan, Charleston Harbor, a blue field with a silver crescent, for special occasions. The American flag used at the battle on Bunker (Breed's) Hill, was called the New England flag. It was a blue ground, with the red cross of St. George in a corner, quartering a white field, and in the upper dexter quartering was the figure of a pine-tree. The New Englanders had also a pine-tree flag as well as a pine-tree shilling. The engraving below is a reduced copy of a vignette on a map of Boston, published in Paris in 1776. The London Chronicle, an anti-ministerial paper, in its issue for January, 1776, gives the following description of the flag of an American cruiser that had been captured: In the The New England flag. Admiralty Office is the flag of a provincial privateer. The
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Georgia, (search)
Assembly in case they should question the right of such negative. So the affections of the colonies. one after another, were alienated from the mother country by her unwise rulers. The Provincial Congress of Georgia assembled at Tondee's Long Room, in Savannah, July 4, 1775, at which delegates from fourteen districts and parishes were in attendance—namely, from the districts of Savannah, Vernonburg, Acton, Sea Island, and Little Ogeechee, and the parishes of St. Matthew, St. Philip, St. George, St. Andrew, St. David, St. Thomas, St. Mary, St. Paul, and St. John. Archibald Bullock was elected president of the Congress, and George Walton secretary. The Congress adopted the American Association, and appointed as delegates to the Continental Congress Lyman Hall (already there), Archibald Bullock, Dr. Jones, John Houstoun, and Rev. Dr. Zubley, a Swiss by birth, who soon became a Tory. Sir James Wright (the governor) issued proclamations to quench the flames of patriotism, but in v
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Loudoun, John Campbell, fourth Earl of 1705-1782 (search)
Loudoun, John Campbell, fourth Earl of 1705-1782 Military officer; born in Scotland in 1705; was appointed governor of Virginia and commander-in-chief of the British forces in America in 1756. Leaving his lieutenant, Dinwiddie, to govern the province, he paid attention to military affairs, in which his indolence, indecision, and general inefficiency were most John Campbell Loudon. conspicuous, and worked disasters. Franklin said of him: He is like little St. George on the sign-boards, always on horseback, but never goes forward. He was recalled in 1757, and returned to England. In 1758 he was made lieutenant-general, and in 1770 general. He died in Scotland, April 27, 1782. According to his instructions, the Earl of Loudoun demanded of the authorities of New York City free quarters for himself, his officers, and 1,000 men. Your demand is contrary to the laws of England and the liberties of America, said the mayor of the city. Free quarters are everywhere usual. I ass
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Massachusetts, (search)
lect three more. The settlement was called London's plantation. Every stockholder who should emigrate to America at his own cost was to receive fifty acres of land for each member of his family, and the same for each indentured servant he carried with him. The charter and the government were soon transferred from England to Massachusetts, and a large emigration ensued in 1629-30. Late in 1634, while Dudley was governor, John Endicott, incited by Roger Williams, caused the red cross of St. George to be cut out of the military standard of England used at Salem, because he regarded it as a relic of Anti-Christ, it having been given by the pope to a former king of England as an ensign of victory. He had so worked upon the minds of many citizens of Salem that they refused to follow the standard with the cross upon it. At about that time the British government, jealous of the independent spirit manifested in Massachusetts, watched its development with great vigilance, and the enemies o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Somers Isles, (search)
r of Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard, who was wrecked upon one of them in 1522. In 1614 the islands were settled under a charter given by King James and called Somers Isles. In 1640 a regular government was established there. Sir George Somers was sent there in 1610 by Lord Delaware for provisions; but, by tempests, the ship was driven northward and finally returned to Virginia. Thence he sailed again, and, after boisterous weather and great fatigue, reached the Bermudas, where he died in 1611. On the spot where he died the town of St. George was built. His heart and entrails were buried in Bermuda and his body was sent to England. In 1620 the governor of Bermuda caused a large marble slab to be laid over the portion of his remains buried there, upon which was cut an epitaph, written by the governor himself, beginning: In the year 1611 Sir George Somers went to heaven; and concluding: At last, his soul and body having to part, He here bequeathed his entrails and his heart.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Union-Jack. (search)
Union-Jack. The original flag of England was the banner of St. George—i. e., white with a red cross, which, April 12, 1606 (three years after James I. ascended the throne), was incorporated with the banner of Scotland—i. e., blue with a white diagonal cross. This combination obtained the name of Union-Jack, in allusion to the union with Scotland; and the word jack is considered a corruption of the word Jacobus, Jacques, or James. This arrangement continued until the union with Ireland, Jan. 1, 1801, when the banner of St. Patrick—i. e., white with a diagonal red cross, was amalgamated with it, and forms the present British union flag. The union-jack of the United States, or American jack, is a blue field with white stars, denoting the union of the States. It is without the fly, which is the part composed of alternate stripes of white an
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