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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 7: sea-coast defences..—Brief description of our maritime fortifications, with an Examination of the several Contests that have taken place between ships and forts, including the attack on San Juan d'ulloa, and on St. Jean d'acre (search)
fence of our shipping upon the high seas; but it cannot replace fortifications in the protection of our harbors, bays, rivers, arsenals, and. commercial towns. Let us take a case in point. For the defence of New York city, it is deemed highly important that the East River should be closed to the approach of a hostile fleet at least fifteen or twenty miles from the city, so that an army landed there would have to cross the Westchester creek, the Bronx, Harlem river, and the defiles of Harlem heights — obstacles of great importance in a judicious defence. Throg's Neck is the position selected for this purpose; cannon placed there not only command the channel, but, from the windings of the river, sweep it for a great distance above and below. No other position, even in the channel itself, possesses equal advantages. Hence, if we had only naval means of defence, it would be best, were such a thing possible, to place the floating defences themselves on this point. Leaving entirely o
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Depew, Chauncey Mitchell, 1834- (search)
s, and made painfully aware of the increased desperation of the struggle, from the aid to be given to the enemy by domestic sympathizers, when he knew that the same local military company which escorted him was to perform the like service for the British Governor Tryon on his landing on the morrow. Returning for the defence of the city the next summer, he executed the retreat from Long Island, which secured from Frederick the Great the opinion that a great commander had appeared, and at Harlem Heights he won the first American victory of the Revolution, which gave that confidence to our raw recruits against the famous veterans of Europe which carried our army triumphantly through the war. Six years more of untold sufferings, of freezing and starving camps, of marches over the snow by barefooted soldiers to heroic attack and splendid victory, of despair with an unpaid army, and of hope from the generous assistance of France, and peace had come and independence triumphed. As the last
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Graydon, Alexander 1752-1818 (search)
Graydon, Alexander 1752-1818 Author; born in Bristol, Pa., April 10, 1752; studied law; entered the Continental army in 1775; was captured in the engagement on Harlem Heights and imprisoned in New York, and later in Flatbush; was paroled and in 1778 exchanged. He was the author of Memoirs of a life, chiefly passed in Pennsylvania, within the last sixty years, with occasional remarks upon the general occurrences, character, and spirit of that eventful period. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., May 2, 1818.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hale, Nathan 1755- (search)
ill the fight in Lexington prompted him The Hale Homestead. to join Col. Charles Webb's regiment. He took part in the siege of Boston; was promoted to captain in January, 1776; and was sent to New York. In response to a call from Washington he volunteered to enter the British lines and procure needed information. At the house of Robert Murray, on the Incleberg (now Murray Hill, in the city of New York), where Washington had his headquarters for a brief time while retreating towards Harlem Heights, Hale received instructions on duty from the commander-in-chief. He entered the British camp on Long Island as a plain young farmer, and made sketches and notes unsuspected. A Tory kinsman knew and betrayed him. He was taken to Howe's headquarters at the Beekman mansion, and confined in the green-house all night. He frankly avowed his name, rank, and character as a spy (which his papers revealed), and, without even the form of a trial, was handed over to the provostmarshal (Cunningham
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Harlem Plains, action at. (search)
Harlem Plains, action at. On the morning of Sept. 16, 1776, the British advanced guard, under Colonel Leslie, occupied the rocky heights now at the northern end of the Central Park. His force was composed of British infantry and Highlanders, with several pieces of artillery. Descending to Harlem Plains, they Battle-field of Harlem Plains, 1845, from the old Block-House. were met by some Virginians under Major Leitch, and Connecticut Rangers under Colonel Knowlton. A desperate conflict ensued. Washington soon reinforced the Americans with some Maryland and New England troops, with whom Generals Putnam, Greene, and others took part to encourage the men. The British were pushed back to the rocky heights, where they were reinforced by Germans, when the Americans fell back towards Harlem Heights. In this spirited engagement the Americans lost about sixty men, including Major Leitch and Colonel Knowlton, who were killed.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), New York City (search)
t. 12, 1776, it was resolved to send the military stores to Dobbs Ferry, on the Hudson, and to retreat to and fortify Harlem Heights, on the northern part of Manhattan Island. The sick were taken over to New Jersey. The main body of the army, accomand moved towards Fort Washington, leaving a rear-guard of 4,000 men, under General Putnam. On the 16th they were on Harlem Heights, and Washington made his headquarters at the house of Col. Roger Morris, his companion-inarms in the battle on the Mough to allow Putnam, with his rear-guard, to escape along a Beekman's mansion. road near the Hudson River, and gain Harlem Heights. This was done chiefly by the adroit management of Mrs. Murray, a Quakeress, living on the Incleberg (now Murray Hilam, on hearing of the landing at Kip's Bay, had struck his flag at Fort George, foot of Broadway, and made his way to Harlem Heights, sheltered from observation by intervening woods. Lord Dunmore, who was with the British fleet, went ashore and unfu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Talbot, Silas 1751-1813 (search)
Talbot, Silas 1751-1813 Naval officer; born in Dighton, Mass., in 1751; was captain in a Rhode Island regiment at the siege of Boston; accompanied the American army to New York; and, for skilful operations with fire-rafts against the British shipping there, received from Congress the commission of major. In the summer of Silas Talbot. 1776 he accepted the command of a firebrig on the Hudson. By orders of Washington, after gaining Harlem Heights (Sept. 15), Talbot attempted the destruction of the British vessels of war lying off the present 124th Street, New York City. At 2 A. M. on the 16th, when it was dark and cloudy, Talbot left his hidingplace under the Palisades, 3 or 4 miles above Fort Lee, ran down the river with a fair wind, and, grappling the Romney, set his brig on fire. The crew of the brig escaped in a boat, and the Romney soon freed herself without injury. The other war-vessels fled out of the harbor in alarm. Talbot received a severe wound in the defence of
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Maryland, (search)
el......Oct. 14, 1774 George Washington, present in Congress as a member from Virginia, is nominated by Thomas Johnson, of Maryland, to be commander-in-chief of the American forces, and unanimously chosen......June 15, 1775 Convention of Maryland assembles and adopts the famous Association of the freemen of Maryland, which becomes the written constitution of Maryland for a year......July 26, 1775 Maryland line, under Col. William Smallwood, engage in the battles of Long Island, Harlem Heights, White Plains, the storming of Fort Washington, battles of Trenton and Princeton; they begin the year 1,444 strong, and are reduced to a mere handful at the close......1776 Batteries erected near Baltimore and Annapolis, and public records removed to Upper Marlboro for safety in preparation for an attack by the British under Lord Dunsmore......1776 James Wilkinson repairs to the camp before Boston as a volunteer from Maryland......1776 Convention assembles and unanimously orders
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Washingtoniana. -1857 (search)
n the year 1873, may be found the famous order against profanity, written by the commander-in-chief's own hand: The following is a list of the localities of the principal headquarters of Washington during the Revolutionary War; Craigie House, Cambridge (residence of the late Henry W. Longfellow), 1775-76; No. 180 Pearl Street and No. 1 Broadway, New York City, 1776; also Morton House (afterwards Richmond Hill), at the junction of Varick and Charlton streets; Roger Morris's house, Harlem Heights, New York, 1776; the Miller House, near White Plains, Westchester co., N. Y., 1776; Schuyler House, Pompton, N. J., 1777; the Ring House, at Chad's Ford, on the Brandywine, and the Elmar House, Whitemarsh, 1777; the Potts House, Valley Forge, 1777-78; Freeman's Tavern, Morristown, N. J., 1777-78; the Brinkerhoff House, Fishkill, N. Y., 1778; at Fredericksburg (in Putnam county, N. Y.) 1779; Ford Mansion, Morristown, 1779-80; New Windsor-on-the-Hudson, 1779, 1780, and 1781; Hopper House, Berge
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), White Plains, battle of. (search)
gton-george-washington-s-legacy, whistler-george-washington, williams-george-washington] to [washington-george] #equiv2 0 washington, george washington-george washington, george General Howe dared not attack the intrenched American camp on Harlem Heights, so he attempted to gain the rear of Washington's headquarters at White Plains. Washington's army, and hem them in on the upper part of Manhattan Island. To do this he landed a considerable force at Throgg's Point, Westchester county, and sent armed ships up the Hudson to cut off supplies for the Americans by water from the north and west. Perceiving the gathering of danger, Washington called a council of war at his headquarters on Harlem Heights, which was the deserted mansion of Roger Morris, who married Mary Phillipse The Morris House. (Washington, George). Morris had espoused the cause of the crown, and fled from his mansion with his family. At that council, held Oct. 16, 1776, it was determined to extend the army beyo
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