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beaten off by a paddle. This reminds one of the still simpler plan of the Northern Indians of Minnesota and Canada, who collect their store of wild rice by leaning the heads over the side of the canoe and beating out the grain. The above plans of heading the grain leave the straw in the field, which is a merit or otherwise, according to the circumstances of the case,—location, market, and mode of farming. It would be absurd to overlook the different circumstances of Minnesota and Middlesex, which determine the question of economy. Pliny well says:— The diversity of the methods employed in harvesting mainly depends upon the extent of the crops and the price of labor. The modern era of reaping-machines commences with the latter portion of the last century. The names of those who made the earliest attempts should be preserved, for in this, as in almost all similar cases, it was after a succession of earnest attempts by different parties that the desired success was achi
d. Same day, a debate occurred in the House on the Militia Bill; but, without taking a vote, the bill was recommitted. Jan. 23. In Senate.—Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, offered an order, which was adopted, directing the Adjutant-General to furnish estimates, for the use of the Legislature, of the cost of furnishing 2,000 overco that it would take effect immediately upon its passage. The amendment was carried, and the bill was passed to a third reading. On motion of Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, the bill was ordered to be printed. Jan. 30. In the House.—The Senate Militia Bill came up in order. Mr. Durfee, of New Bedford, moved to strike out all aftnapsacks, at $2.25 each, $4,500; 2,000 blankets, at $3 each, $6,000; camp equipage (exclusive of tents), $3,000,—total, $31,500. On motion of Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, the communication was laid on the table, and ordered to be printed. Feb. 1. In Senate.—Mr. Whitney, of Plymouth, from the Committee on Federal Relations, re
enate were Messrs. Stone of Essex, Bonney of Middlesex, Northend of Essex, Rogers of Suffolk, Davis of Bristol, Walker of Middlesex, and Cole of Berkshire; on the part of the House, Messrs. Bullock e was amended, on motion of Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, to limit the force to five thousand men, in. An amendment was proposed by Mr. Clark, of Middlesex, to strike out the clause ratifying the acts passing it to be enacted. Mr. Bonney, of Middlesex, opposed the bill. He said that it authorizosed by Messrs. Northend of Essex, Bonney of Middlesex, Battles of Worcester, Cole of Berkshire, Cas, elicited a warm debate. Mr. Schouler, of Middlesex, spoke in favor of the resolves. He could n It would embarrass them. Mr. Bonney, of Middlesex, was not opposed to the sentiments of the renies belonged to the county of Essex, one to Middlesex, and one to Suffolk. Captain Thomas J. C. Athe controversy of our time, that the men of Middlesex, the men of Charlestown, the men of Concord,
h; and men, unused to public speech, were fired with eloquence. A general camp of rendezvous was established in the city of Worcester, and named Camp Wool, in honor of the veteran, Major-General Wool. To this camp all recruits from the counties of Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, and Worcester, were sent. The old camp at Lynnfield was continued, and designated Camp Stanton, which served as the general rendezvous of recruits from the counties of Barnstable, Bristol, Dukes, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Nantucket, Plymouth, and Suffolk. Until further orders, Lieutenant-Colonel Lincoln, of the Thirty-fourth Regiment, which was then being recruited, was placed in command of Camp Wool; and Colonel Maggi, of the Thirty-third Regiment, which was also being recruited, was placed in command of Camp Stanton. Surgeon-General Dale was instructed to have a surgeon at each of the camps, to examine recruits. These camps were intended for recruits who were to form new regiments; and Camp
minister in the pulpit, and the capitalist in his banking-house, felt it. This general confidence and buoyant hope had their origin and their growth mainly in the fact of the triumphant re-election of President Lincoln, and the universal confidence reposed in Lieutenant-General Grant, whose wise and comprehensive policy had become known to the people. The Legislature of Massachusetts assembled at the State House on Wednesday, Jan. 4. The Senate was called to order by Mr. Wentworth, of Middlesex, and organized by the choice of Jonathan E. Field, of Berkshire, for President, who received twenty-five votes, and John S. Eldridge, of Norfolk, ten; and by the choice of Stephen N. Gifford, clerk, who received all the votes that were cast. Mr. Field, on taking the chair, referred to national matters in the following words:— The people have decided that the Union shall at all hazards be preserved. No man was bold enough to ask for popular indorsement, who held any other creed. By
William Schouler, A history of Massachusetts in the Civil War: Volume 2, Chapter 10: Middlesex County. (search)
town of Hudson, formed of parts of Marlborough and Stow, and the town of Everett, formed of a part of Maiden, have been incorporated as separate and distinct towns; the former, March 19, 1866, and the latter, March 9, 1870. Their war records form a part of that of the towns from which they were set off, and therefore do not appear distinct and separate in this volume. In old times the county seat was Concord; at the present time the courts of the county are held in Cambridge and Lowell. Middlesex is not only celebrated for its Revolutionary renown, but for containing Cambridge University, and the Navy Yard at Charlestown. Lowell and Waltham are well known for their cotton manufactures, as are Marlborough, Woburn, Natick, and other towns for the manufacture of shoes. The aggregate value of the agricultural and manufacturing products of the county in 1870 was $83,102,442. The surface of the county is uneven, and the soil barren. It presents a great variety for the admiration of th
William Schouler, A history of Massachusetts in the Civil War: Volume 2, Chapter 15: Worcester County. (search)
Chapter 15: Worcester County. This is the most central, and in territory the largest county in the Commonwealth. It crosses from New Hampshire on the north to the States of Rhode Island and Connecticut on the south; on the west it is bounded by the counties of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden; and on the east by Middlesex and Franklin. Worcester County contains fifty-seven towns, and one city,—Worcester. The soil is generally good; its surface is undulating and hilly; Wachusett Mountain is its highest elevation. The population of the county in 1860 was 159,650; in 1865 it was 162,923, being an increase in five years of 3,273. The population in 1870 was 192,718, being an increase since 1865 of 29,795. The valuation of the county in 1860 was $75,412,160; in 1865 it was $80,857,766, being an increase in five years of $5,445,606. According to the returns made by the selectmen of the towns and the mayor of Worcester in 1866, the whole number of men which the county furnished
ing their determination not to serve upon the new Council Board, and in confirmation of this conclusion each of them submitted in writing a copy of a written certificate to that effect, attested by the clerk of the court. The high sheriff of the courts, who was present, submitted a certificate in similar form, to the effect that he would not execute any precepts under the new act of Parliament, and that he would recall the venires which he had already sent out. The clerk of the courts of Middlesex engaged to do no one thing in obedience to the new act of Parliament. The meeting apparently adjourned from the Common to the residence of Lieutenant-Governor Oliver, on the westerly side of Elmwood Avenue, now known as the Lowell house, where the lieutenant-governor made a promise of a similar nature over his own signature, the concluding sentence in which is, My house at Cambridge being surrounded by about four thousand people, in compliance with their command I sign my name,— Thomas
the Common, to audiences estimated at thousands, and ever after the elm was known as the Whitefield tree. It remained standing until 1855, when it was removed by the city. This Common was famous also as the place selected by the yeomanry of Middlesex on which to assemble on every occasion of public emergency. On Thursday, September 1, 1774, Governor Gage sent four companies of troops in thirteen boats up the Mystic River, and seized two hundred and fifty half-barrels of powder, being the wremoved it to Castle William, now Fort Independence, in Boston Harbor. A detachment also went to Old Cambridge and carried off two fieldpieces. These proceedings caused great indignation, and on the following day more than two thousand men of Middlesex assembled here to consult in regard to this insult to the people. From the Common they marched to the court-house in Harvard Square, and compelled three councilors, Oliver, Danforth, and Lee, and the high sheriff of the county, to resign thei
parse population, the marshes, as yet undefiled, performed auxiliary service to the farmer with their supplies of salt hay, and the flats, as yet untainted, gave him the mussel and the clam in plenty. The yield of the grass gave but slight value to the riparian lands. It was not until the people grew in such numbers as to exhaust the uplands, that any attempt was made to reclaim the lowlands for habitation or commerce. The bridge of 1793, which became the great highway from the towns of Middlesex to the markets of Boston, and so quickly doubled the population of Cambridge, gave the first impetus to the work of pushing back the sea. Its long causeway was laboriously made over the marshes, and, later, little by little, a rod of land was gained from the waters here and there on either side as the increasing traffic justified the enterprise of shop or of inn. The new prosperity of the town awakened the ambition of the more sanguine. Why suffer Cambridge to be merely a roadway to the c
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