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General James Longstreet, From Manassas to Appomattox, Chapter 14: Second battle of Manassas (Bull Run). (search)
leasure ride of General Fitzhugh Lee by Louisa Court-House as most unseasonable. He lost the fruits of our summer's work, and lost the Southern cause. Proud Troy was laid in ashes. His orders were to meet his commander on the afternoon of the 17th, on the plank-road near Raccoon Ford, and upon this appointment was based General Lee's order of march for the 18th. If the march had been made as appointed, General Lee would have encountered the army of General Pope upon weak ground from Robertson River to near Raccoon Ford of the Rapidan, and thus our march would have been so expedited that we could have reached Alexandria and Washington before the landing of the first detachment of the Army of the Potomac at Alexandria on the 24th. The artillery and infantry were called to amend the delinquency by severe marches and battles. It would have been possible to make good the lost time, but the despatch lost in the Stuart escapade was handed to General Pope that morning (the 18th), and
General James Longstreet, From Manassas to Appomattox, Chapter 21: reorganization and rest for both armies. (search)
valry force at Manassas Gap, and part of McLaws's division a similar experience at the east end of Chester Gap. I reached Culpeper Court-House with the divisions of McLaws, R. H. Anderson, and Pickett. Hood's division was ordered behind Robertson River, and Ransom to Madison Court-House, General Jackson with the Second Corps remaining in the Shenandoah Valley, except one division at Chester Gap of the Blue Ridge. The Washington authorities issued orders on the 5th of November relieving Artillery, siege, and field batteries, 370 guns, General Henry J. Hunt, Chief. At the time of the change of commanders the Confederates were looking for a Federal move north of Culpeper Court-House, and were surveying the ground behind Robertson River for a point of concentration of the two wings to meet that move. General Burnside, however, promptly planned operations on other lines. He submitted to President Lincoln his proposition to display some force in the direction of Gordonsv
ills, Va. General Custer's report. headquarters Second brigade Third division cavalry corps, army of the Potomac, October 24, 1863. Captain L. G. Estes, A. A. G. Third Division: In compliance with instructions received from the General commanding the division, I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of my command, from October ninth to October twenty-third, 1863: On the night of October ninth, my picket line, which extended along the north bank of Robertson River, in the vicinity of James City, was attacked, and a portion of the line forced back upon the reserves; at the same time my scouts informed me that the enemy was moving in heavy column toward my right; this report was confirmed by deserters. In anticipation of an attack by the enemy at daybreak, I ordered my entire command to be saddled at three A. M. on the tenth. At daylight the enemy began by cautiously feeling my line; but seeing his inability to surprise us, he contented himself w
mmand on the ninth instant, during the engagement near Cedar Run: On the morning of the ninth, the First, Second, and Third brigades of this division, under Brigadier-General C. S. Winder, First brigade, (the Fourth having been detailed to protect the trains,) marched from the encampment near Barnett's Ford of the Rapidan River, upon the turnpike road leading in the direction of Culpeper, the division of Major-General Ewell having preceded it the morning previous. After crossing the Robertson River, and proceeding some three miles, we overtook the division of General Ewell, and discovered the enemy in front, when our troops were halted to make dispositions to attack them. This division was ordered to attack the enemy's right, whilst the division of General Ewell was ordered to attack him upon the left. On my riding to the front, I perceived the enemy's cavalry drawn up on the range of hills near Cedar Run, with a line of videttes in front, whilst the fall of the hills in rear
Jackson. The small settlement was the meeting place of four roads by means of which Pope's army of forty-seven thousand men would be united. Jackson, informed of the advance, immediately set his three divisions in motion for Culpeper, hoping to crush Banks, hold the town, and prevent the uniting of the Army of Virginia. His progress was slow. The remainder of Banks's corps reached Culpeper on the 8th. On the morning of the 9th Jackson finally got his troops over the Rapidan and the Robertson rivers. Two miles beyond the latter stream there rose from the plain the slope of Slaughter Mountain, whose ominous name is more often changed into Cedar. This mountain is an isolated foothill of the Blue Ridge, some twenty miles from the parent range, and a little north of the Rapidan. From its summit could be seen vast stretches of quiet farmlands which had borne their annual harvests since the days of the Cavaliers. Its gentle slopes were covered with forests, which merged at length into
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 10: Cedar Mountain (search)
fall upon that portion of the enemy which first reached Culpeper. Could he defeat one of Pope's three corps, and occupy that central position in time, he might deal with the other two in succession, as he had dealt with Shields and Fremont at Port Republic. His strategy was excellent, but it was defeated by his own logistics. On the 7th the march was but eight miles, having only been begun in the afternoon. On the 8th there were 20 miles to go to reach Culpeper, with the Rapidan and Robertson rivers to ford, the latter river being held by the Federal cavalry, about 12 miles in front of the town. The weather was intensely hot, and it could hardly be expected that the Confederates would make the march in time to give battle on the same day. It would have been, however, only an easy march to reach a point, so close to the enemy, that battle could be delivered at an early hour on the 9th, allowing time to reap the fruits of victory, if successful. But on the 8th, some little blunders
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 14: fall of 1862 (search)
few days later Burnside submitted to the President his plan for the campaign, and it was approved, though reluctantly. McClellan's plan had been to interpose between Lee's divided forces. Already he was not far from such a position. From Longstreet's corps to Jackson's was over 40 miles by the roads across the mountains, and McClellan's forces were within 20 miles of either. But Lee could have delayed a march upon either, and, by falling back, might unite his two corps, behind the Robertson River, before accepting battle. This had been Lee's plan, if the threat of Jackson's position upon the Federal flank should fail to prevent their advance. Burnside's organization was as follows:— Grand Divs.corpsDIVISIONSBRIGADESARTILLERY Right Grand Division2d CorpsHancockCaldwell, Meagher, Zook CouchHoward FrenchSully, Owen, Hall, Kimball, Palmer, Andrews8 Batteries Sumner9th Corps WillcoxSturgis GettyPoe, Christ, Leasure Nagle, Ferrero Hawkins, Harland6 Batteries Centre Grand
he low country in the great wild blackberry patches loaded with ripened fruit. Jackson himself pitched his camp far up on the western slope of the mountain range, whence he overlooked the terrace occupied by Pope, and could study from afar its peculiar topography, at the same time urging to tense activity in the study of the country and in the preparation of campaign maps his topographical engineers, who had again joined him. His cavalry held the line of the Rapidan up to the mouth of the Robertson, and then along that river toward the Blue ridge, communicating with the Confederate cavalry beyond, that still guarded the upper Shenandoah valley. The Federal cavalry picketed to these rivers on their northern sides. Lee had no misgivings about intrusting the care of Pope to Jackson. Writing to him, after sending Hill to his aid, he says: Relying upon your judgment, courage and discretion, and trusting to the continued blessing, of an ever-kind Providence, I hope for victory—words and
Chapter 18: Lee's campaign against Pope in Northern Virginia. The battle of Cedar Run, as General Lee says in his report, effectually checked the progress of the enemy for the time; but the pressure from Washington was so great that Pope had to respond with an advance, which he made, on August 14th, when Reno's arrival increased his force to 50,000. He disposed his army from the crossing of Robertson river by the Orange road, to the crossing of the Rapidan at the historic Raccoon ford, across which Wayne led his Pennsylvania brigade to reinforce Lafayette in 1781. Lee, in expectation of this, had, on the 13th of August, ordered Longstreet, with his division and two brigades under Hood, to move to Gordonsville, and R. H. Anderson to follow him, anticipating by a day McClellan's movement from Harrison's landing toward Fort Monroe. At the same time Stuart was ordered to move the main body of his cavalry toward Orange Court House, covering the right of Longstreet's movem
, Nelson's battalion of artillery, and the cavalry of Lomax and Rosser. Early established his headquarters in Staunton, placed his artillery in a camp near Waynesboro, cantoned Wharton's infantry near Fishersville, and widely and far to the front distributed his cavalry—practically almost disbanded it—on outpost duty, in Piedmont, in the Valley and in Appalachia, in camps where forage could be obtained for their horses. Wickham's brigade of cavalry at Barboursville, held the line of Robertson river from its head near Milam's gap, and down the Rapidan to the vicinity of Raccoon ford. Rosser's brigade, with headquarters at Swoope's, eight miles west of Staunton, had its advanced pickets at Milford, in the Page valley of the Shenandoah, on the line of Stony creek near Edenburg, in the main Shenandoah valley, at Harper's Ferry, on Lost river, and on the South Fork of the Potomac, some miles south of Moorefield, while on the west it occupied McDowell. Imboden's brigade, with headqua
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