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Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), The treatment of prisoners during the war between the States. (search)
Mr. Harper was an old gentlemen, over 82 years of age, a cripple,. and can neither read nor write the English language, though a good German scholar. This gentlemen was one of twelve children, had served in the war of 1812, was the son of a Revolutionary soldier who bore his musket during the whole war, inherited a woodland tract, and built up a substantial home in the midst of Western Virginia. His was only one of a class which swept over West Virginia, and left the beautiful valleys of Tygart and the Potomac rivers in ashes and desolation. It is to pay for crimes like these, and keep in employment the men who committed them, that created the debt now weighing the people down. It was to pay such monsters, with their tools, that money was refunded by the General Government to the State of Missouri and West Virginia, and the taxes saddled upon the people of the country. The following letter gives its own explanation: Macon, Georgia, October 7, 1867. Henry Clay Dean, M
ll, drenching us all completely. As I write, the sound of a cannon comes booming over the mountain. There it goes again! Whether it is at Phillippi or Laurel Hill, I can not tell. Certain it is that the portion of our army advancing up the Valley river is in battle, somewhere, and not many miles away. We do not know the strength of our opponents, nor the character and extent of their fortifications. These mountain passes must be ugly things to go through when in possession of an enemy; into camp. July, 13 Six or eight hundred Southern troops sent in a flag of truce, and surrendered unconditionally. They are a portion of the force which fought Rosecrans at Rich mountain, and Morris at Laurel Hill. We started up the Valley river at seven o'clock this morning, our regiment in the lead. Found most of the houses deserted. Both Union men and secessionists had fled. The Southern troops, retreating in this direction, had frightened the people greatly, by telling them tha
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: The Opening Battles. Volume 1., McClellan in West Virginia. (search)
ignorant and bigoted Union sentiment. Other reinforcements were promised Garnett, but none reached him except the 44th Virginia regiment, which arrived at Beverly the very day of the action, but which did not take part in the fighting. Tygart's Valley, in which Beverly lies, is between Cheat Mountain on the east, and Rich Mountain on the west. The river, of the same name as the valley, flows northward about fifteen miles, then turns westward, breaking through the ridge, passes by Philippe darkness of the night and in the tangled woods and thickets of the mountain-side, his column got divided, and, with the rear portion of it, he wandered all day on the 12th, seeking to make his way to Garnett. He halted at evening at the Tygart Valley River, six miles north of Beverly, and learned from some country people of Garnett's retreat. It was still possible to reach the mountains east of the valley, but beyond was a hundred miles of wilderness and half a dozen mountain ridges on whi
Fitzhugh Lee, General Lee, Chapter 6: the campaign in West Virginia. (search)
lyzed our efforts. It was Loring's purpose to attempt a movement on Reynolds's rear. This officer occupied, with two thousand men, Cheat Mountain pass, through which the Staunton and Parkersburg pike passed, and had three thousand men in Tygart's Valley on the road to Huttonsville, with a reserve at Huttonsville, so he could re-enforce his troops on the Staunton road, or on the Valley Mountain road, as necessary. Loring, with thirtyfive hundred effective troops, was in front of him on the operation of the whole machine is not possible. In a letter to Mrs. Lee, dated Valley Mountain, September 17, 1861, the general writes: I had hoped to have surprised the enemy's works on the morning of the 12th, both at Cheat Mountain and on Valley River. All the attacking parties with great labor had reached their destination over mountains considered impassable to bodies of troops, notwithstanding the heavy storm that had set in the day before and raged all night, in which they had to stand
ook the road through the enemy's camp for the route of the Federal troops, placed the enemy in possession of intelligence of the movement. The rebels, about 2,500 strong, with heavy earthwork batteries, were intrenched on the western slopes of the Rich Mountain, about twenty-five miles east from Buckhannon, and two miles west from Beverly, which is on the east side of the mountain. They had selected the forks of the Roaring Creek, which empties after a northerly course into the Tygart's Valley River, a branch of the Monongahela. The creek crosses the road in two places, about a mile apart. The morning was cool and bracing, and the Federal troops were in capital spirits. Gen. Rosecrans ordered the brigade to cut a path through a thick growth of mountain pine trees and heavy undergrowth of brush for nearly nine miles, which occupied about ten hours, resting at noon. Late in the afternoon Gen. Rosecrans came on the rear of the rebels, and, after a desperate fight of an hour
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 1., Chapter 20: commencement of civil War. (search)
in Marion County, when Porterfield, thoroughly alarmed, fled from Grafton with about fifteen hundred followers, and took post at Philippi, a village on the Tygart's Valley River, a branch of the Monongahela, about sixteen miles southward from Grafton. He had destroyed two bridges in Kelley's path toward Grafton, but these were sooen the insurgents, abandoning their baggage-train, escaped, and halted only at Beverly, the capital of Randolph County, twenty-five or thirty miles farther up Tygart's Valley. report of Colonel Dumont to General Morris, June 4, 1861; Grafton correspondent of the Wheeling Intelligencer, June 3, 1861; sketch of the life of Brigadirg, on the Ohio River, and the Northwestern Railway, leading to Wheeling, have a connection. It was an important military strategic point. of Porterfield up Tygart's Valley to Beverly. Guided by information thus obtained, and considering his lack of wagons and other means for transportation, General Morris thought it prudent to
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 1., Chapter 22: the War on the Potomac and in Western Virginia. (search)
region, or it would be lost to the Confederacy. See page 494. A plan of campaign in that direction was immediately formed and put in execution. Porterfield was succeeded in command in Northwestern Virginia by General Robert S. Garnett, a meritorious officer, who served on the staff of General Taylor, in Mexico, and was breveted a major for gallantry in the battle of Buena Vista. He made his Headquarters at Beverly, in Randolph County, a pleasant village on a plain, traversed by Tygart's Valley River. It was an important point in operations to prevent McClellan pushing through the gaps of the mountain ranges into the Shenandoah Valley. Garnett proceeded at once to fortify places on the roads leading from Beverly through these mountain passes. He collected a considerable force at that place, and had outlying detachments at Bealington, Buckhannon, Romney, and Philippi. Ex-Governor Henry A. Wise, with a brigadier's commission, had been organizing a brigade in the Great Kanawha V
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 2., Chapter 4: military operations in Western Virginia, and on the sea-coast (search)
and vigorously scouted the hills in that region, making the beautiful little Greenbrier Valley lively with frequent skirmishing. Jackson had withdrawn from Camp Bartow at Travelers' rest, and, being ordered to Georgia, had left his command of twelve hundred Confederates and about eight hundred Virginians with Colonel Edward Johnston of Georgia, to confront Milroy. He made his Headquarters at Allegheny Summit; and Milroy, when he took chief command, established his at Huttonsville, in Tygart's Valley. Milroy determined to attack Johnston, and for that purpose moved a little over three thousand men on the 12th of December. He directed Colonel Moody of the Ninth Indiana to lead his regiment, with a detachment Robert H. Milroy. of the Second Virginia, around to make a flank movement, and charge and capture a battery on a bluff commanding the Staunton pike. At the same time the Twenty-fifth Ohio, Colonel Jones, with detachments of the Thirteenth Indiana, and Thirty-second Ohio,
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 3: political affairs.--Riots in New York.--Morgan's raid North of the Ohio. (search)
s, and at the end of a rough ride of about four hundred miles, going and returning, during eight days, they lost eighty-two men and three hundred horses. A little later, General W. W. Averill started with his cavalry from Huttonsville, in Tygart's Valley, See map on page 101, volume II. and passing through several counties in the mountain region southward, to Pocahontas, drove General W. S. (called Mudwall ) Jackson out of that shire, and over the Warm Springs Mountain, in a series of ski seven men, and a Parrott gun, which burst during the fight. The Confederate loss was one hundred and fifty-six men. Much later in the year, Averill, still watching in West Virginia, made another aggressive movement. He left Beverly, in Tygart's Valley, early in November, with five thousand men of all arms, and, moving southward, again encountered Mudwall Jackson. He drove him until the latter was re-enforced by General Echols, who came up from Lewisburg, when the Confederates took a stro
nly not attractive by the glory to be gained or the ease to be enjoyed, but Lee made no question as to personal preference, and, whatever were his wishes, they were subordinate to what was believed to be the public interest. The season had been one of extraordinary rains, rendering the mountain roads, ordinarily difficult, almost impassable. With unfaltering purpose and energy, he crossed the Alleghany Mountains, and, learning that the main encampment of the enemy was in the valley of Tygart River and Elk Run, Randolph County, he directed his march toward that position. The troops under the immediate command of Brigadier General H. R. Jackson, together with those under Brigadier General Loring, were about thirty-five hundred men. The force of the enemy, as far as it could be ascertained, was very much greater. In the detached work at Cheat Mountain Pass, we learned by a provision return found upon the person of a captured staff officer that there were three thousand men, being bu
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