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Fitzhugh Lee, General Lee, Chapter 12: Gettysburg. (search)
. Gettysburg is a small town near the Pennsylvania and Maryland boundary line, ten miles east of the south range of mountains-the eastern wall of the Cumberland Valley --and through whose passes Lee's army debouched. The intervening section is described as full of long ridges running north and south, as the mountains do. On Lee's route from Cashtown to Gettysburg one of these ridges is crossed at right angles one and a half mile west of Gettysburg, and a little farther on another; Willoughby Run flows between them, and here the combat of July 1st opened. Closer to the town and about half a mile west of — it is the now famous Seminary Ridge, so called from a Lutheran theological seminary on it, upon which were located the battle lines of portions of two of Lee's corps on the 2d and 3d of July. Directly south of Gettysburg is the beginning of another series of heights, hills, and depressions which, running in a southerly direction for three miles, terminate in a lofty, wooded
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 4. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Causes of the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg. (search)
aring any thing at this time of Longstreet's infantry, nor did I get the impression that General Lee thought there was any unnecessary elay going on. I had just arrived, and knew nothing of the situation, and my instructions were to reconnoitre the flank to be attacked, and choose my own positions and means of reaching them. This duty occupied me, according to the best of my recollection, one or two hours, when I rode back, and in person conducted my own batallion to the school-house on Willoughby run. At one point the direct road leading to this place came in sight of the enemy's signal station, but I turned out of the road before reaching the exposed part, and passing through some meadows a few hundred yards, regained the road without coming in sight. I then went about hunting up the other batallions which were attached to the infantry in order to give them all their positions for opening the attack. While thus engaged I came upon the head of an column, which I think was Hood's d
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The first day at Gettysburg. (search)
dges and of the valley between them. West of McPherson's ridge Willoughby Run flows south into Marsh Creek. South of the farm buildings and tended from below the Fairfield road, along the eastern bank of Willoughby Run, to the railroad cut, then easterly some 1500 yards north of thom the south side of the Chambersburg road, on the east side of Willoughby Run, northerly and eastwardly across the Mummasburg, Carlisle, and eminary. The advanced picket put on the Chambersburg road near Willoughby Run consisted of a corporal and three men, relieved every two hours saw men approaching along the road, nearly a mile away, across Willoughby Run. Acting on his orders, he immediately sent his men to notify t large portion of his brigade, and pursued the remainder across Willoughby Run. Wadsworth's small division had thus won decided successes aga(nine batteries) occupying all the commanding positions west of Willoughby Run. Doubleday reestablished his former lines, Meredith holding Mc
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., chapter 4.42 (search)
iles from Ziegler's Grove. From Peach Orchard to Ziegler's is nearly a mile and a half. For half a mile the road runs along a ridge at right angles to that of Devil's Den, which slopes back to Plum Run. The angle at the Peach Orchard is thus formed by the intersection of two bold ridges, one from Devil's Den, the other along the Emmitsburg road. It is distant about 600 yards from the wood which skirts the whole length of Seminary Ridge and covers the movement of troops between it and Willoughby Run, half a mile beyond. South of Major-General Daniel E. Sickles. From a War-time photograph. the Round Top and Devil's Den ridge the country is open, and the principal obstacles to free movement are the fences — generally of stone — which surround the numerous fields. As our troops came up they were assigned to places on the line: the Twelfth Corps, General A. S. Williams,--vice Slocum, commanding the right wing,--to Culp's Hill, on Wadsworth's right; Second Corps to Cemetery Ridge
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., Kershaw's brigade at Gettysburg. (search)
been plainly visible from the Federal signal station on Little Round Top. Here we were halted by General McLaws in person, while he and General Longstreet rode forward to reconnoiter. Very soon those gentlemen returned, both manifesting considerable irritation, as I thought. General McLaws ordered me to countermarch, and in doing so we passed Hood's division, which had been following us. We moved back to the place where we had rest ed during the morning, and thence by a country road to Willoughby Run, then dry, and down that to the school-house beyond Pitzer's. There we turned to the left through the lane, moving directly toward Little Round Top. General Longstreet here commanded me to advance with my brigade and attack the enemy at the Peach Orchard, which lay a little to the left of my line of march, some six hundred yards from us. I was directed to turn the flank of that position, extend my line along the road we were then in beyond tile Emmitsburg pike, with my left resting on th
Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buell, Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Volume 3., The great charge and artillery fighting at Gettysburg. (search)
n condition to fight again, and some we held boldly in advanced positions all along the line. Sharp-shooters came out and worried some of the men, and single guns would fire on these, sometimes very rapidly, and manage to keep them back; some parts of the line had not even a picket in front. But the enemy's artillery generally let us alone, and I certainly saw no reason to disturb the entente cordiale. Night came very slowly, but came at last; and about 10 the last gun was withdrawn to Willoughby Run, whence we had moved to the attack the afternoon before. Of Pickett's three brigadiers, Garnett and Armistead were killed and Kemper dangerously wounded. Fry, who commanded Pettigrew's brigade, which adjoined Garnett on the left, and in the charge was the brigade of direction for the whole force, was also left on the field desperately wounded. Of all Pickett's field-officers in the three brigades only one major came out unhurt. The men who made the attack were good enough: the only
lvania, Va. 24 Hatcher's Run, Va. 1 North Anna, Va. 3 Picket, Dec. 6, 1864 1 Totopotomoy, Va. 1 Dabney's Mills, Va. 5 Bethesda Church, Va. 1     Present, also, at Chancellorsville; Mine Run; Hicksford. notes.--The largest number of casualties in any regiment at Gettysburg occurred in the Twenty-fourth Michigan. It was then in the Iron Brigade, Wadsworth's (1st) Division, First Corps, and fought in the battle of the first day, while in position in McPherson's woods near Willoughby Run. It was obliged to fall back from this line, but did not yield the ground until three-fourths of its number had been struck down. Entering the engagement with 28 officers and 468 men, it lost 69 killed, 247 wounded, and 47 missing; total, 363. Colonel Morrow, in his report, states the loss at 79 killed, 237 wounded, and about 83 missing. The nominal list handed in by Captain Edwards after the battle shows 363 casualties, but divided differently from the above. Fully one-half of the
st and slightly to the south of the Trostle farm the land rises gradually to a low hill which stands midway between the Trostle farm and the crest of Seminary Ridge. On the eastern slope of this hill, and reaching to its crest, there was an extensive peach orchard. The western side of the orchard bordered on the broad Emmitsburg road, which stretched away from Gettysburg to the southwest to Emmitsburg, a short distance over the Maryland line. A mile and a half west of Gettysburg flows Willoughby Run, while at about the same distance on the east and nearly parallel to the run flows a somewhat larger stream called Rock Creek. Between Rock Creek and the northern extremity of Cemetery Ridge is situated Culp's Hill, on whose sides the armies in blue and gray struggled heroically during the three days fight. The area of the entire battle-ground is something over twenty-five square miles, all of which may be seen at a glance from any one of the five observatories which have since been er
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 17: Gettysburg: second day (search)
directed, in his march, to avoid exposing it to the view of a Federal signal station on Little Round Top Mountain. Meanwhile, on the arrival of Longstreet's reserve artillery in the vicinity of the field, I had been placed in charge of all the artillery of his corps, and directed to reconnoitre the enemy's left and to move some of the battalions to that part of the field. This had been done by noon, when three battalions, — my own, Cabell's and Henry's—were located in the valley of Willoughby Run awaiting the arrival of the infantry. Riding back presently to learn the cause of their non-arrival, the head of the column was found halted, where its road became exposed to the Federal view, while messages were sent to Longstreet, and the guide sought a new route. The exposed point had been easily avoided by our artillery, by turning out through a meadow, but after some delay there came orders to the infantry to countermarch and take a road via Black Horse Tavern. This incident dela
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 18: Gettysburg: third day (search)
s batteries in support. Had Kilpatrick come with three brigades upon our right flank, he could not have failed to discover an immense opportunity open to him. Behind the mask of our videttes were wide fields stretching along the valleys of Willoughby Run and Marsh Creek for miles to the north and west, containing all our trains practically unguarded. The bulk of our cavalry was engaging Gregg's division about two miles east of Gettysburg. Once through our skirmish line, Kilpatrick would haworth the candle, and the game must be played. It is the hardest of all games to a general new to the responsibility of chief command. Under cover of the night, Lee took a defensive line upon Seminary Ridge with its right flank retired to Willoughby Run. Here he stood all day of the 4th, apparently inviting attack, but fortunate in remaining unmolested. Imboden's cavalry had joined him on the 3d, 2100 strong, with a six-gun battery. During the night of the 3d, Imboden had been directed
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