The poison on the arrow was called toxicum, from its relation to the bow, and the word was extended to poison in general.
The shaft was of polished wood, cane, or reed.
The latter actually gave names to the weapon,— arundo, calamus. The Egyptians used reed shafts; their arrows were from 22 to 34 inches in length, and are yet extant.
The monuments show feathered shafts.
In the time of Homer, arrows were sometimes poisoned.
The poisoned arrows of the Indians of Guiana are blown through a tube.
They are made of the hard wood of the Cokarito tree, are about the size of a knitting-needle nine inches long, and mounted on a yellow reed four or five feet long.
One end is sharpened, and poisoned with woorai; the rear end receives a pledget of cotton to act as a piston in the tube.
The effective range is about forty yards. The hardwood spike can be removed at pleasure; twelve or fifteen such spikes are carried by the hunter in a little box, made of bamboo.
courbarilBrazilUsed for varnish.
The Indian kind known in commerce as Indian copal.
AsphalteTrinidad, Dead Sea, etcForms a basis of black varnishes, as Japan black, etc. Used with sand for paying material.
Affords petroleum or rock oil.
AssafoetidaNarthex assafoetida, etc.Central AsiaUsed as a stimulant and antispasmodic in medicine.
Australian gum-resinsEucalyptus (various)AustraliaAffords resins for varnishes, and produces tannin.
BalataAchras dissectaGuianaOne of the Sapoteae; allied in qualities to gutta-percha.
Benzoin or BenjaminStyrax benzoinE. Indian IslandsFragrant.
Used incense, perfumery, pastilles; affords benzoic acid.
Canada balsamAbies balsamea, etcCanadaBecomes solid on exposure to the air. Used to mount microscopic objects, for varnish, and as a cement for optical glasses.
CaoutchoucSiphonia brasiliensiBrazilThe solidified milky juice of many families of plants.
Is very elastic; has the property of uniting with sulphur, magne
lso Spruce; Hemlock)
Fir (Scotch)Pinus sylvestrisEuropeMedium hardness.
The yellow deal used in Europe.
Fir (silver)Abies grandisCalifornia.
FusticMorus tinctoriaN and South AmericaDyeing, mosaic-work, and turning.
GreenheartNectandra rodiaeiGuiana, TrinidadHard and very durable.
Shipbuilding, wharves, bridges.
Gum (sour or black)Nyssa multifloraEastern U. S.Hard, tough, white.
Gum (sweet or red)Liquidamber styracifluaEastern U. S.Inferior to the black.
Wagons and implements, wedges.
OsiersSalix viminalis, etcEuropeSoft.
Baskets, plait, wicker-work generally.
Oyster Bay pineCallitris australisTasmaniaHard.
Agricultural implements, cabinet-work, etc.
Paddle-woodAspidosperma excelsumGuianaPaddles, cotton-gin rollers.
Palm(See Porcupine-wood)Tropical climesVarious uses in mechanics.
Partridge-woodHeisteria coccinea, etcW. Ind. and S. Am.Hard.
Walking-sticks, umbrella-handles, etc.
PearPyrus communisTurning, carving, blocks