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Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Contents of the Twelfth Book of Diodorus (search)
henians and the seizure and destruction of Plataea by the Lacedaemonians (chaps. 55-56). —The civil strife among the Cercyraeans (chap. 57). —How the Athenians were seized by a pestilential disease and lost many of their citizens (chap. 58). —How the Lacedaemonians founded Heracleia, a city in Trachis (chap. 59). —How the Athenians slew many of the Ambraciotes and laid waste their city (chap. 60). —On the Lacedaemonians who were made prisoners on the island of Sphacteria (chaps. 61-63). —On the punishment inflicted by Postumius on his son because he left his place in the ranks (chap. 64). —On the war between the Lacedaemonians and Athenians over the Megarians (chap. 66). —The war between the Lacedaemonians and Athenians over the Chalcidians (chaps. 67-68). —The battle in Boeotia between the Athenians and the Boeotians (chaps. 69-70). —The campaign of the Athenians against the Lesbian exiles (chap. 72). —Th
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 61 (search)
the neighbourhood of Pylos. And since the troops were seized by an eager desire to undergo any and every danger and to take Pylos by storm, the Lacedaemonians stationed the ships with their prows facing the entrance to the harbour in order that they might use them for blocking the enemy's attempt to enter, and assaulting the walls with the infantry in successive waves and displaying all possible rivalry, they put up contests of amazing valour. Also to the island called Sphacteria, which extends lengthwise to the harbour and protects it from the winds, they transported the best troops of the Lacedaemonians and their allies. This they did in their desire to forestall the Athenians in getting control of the island before them, since its situation was especially advantageous to the prosecution of the siege. And though they were engaged every day in the fighting before the fortifications and were suffering wounds because of the superior height of the
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 63 (search)
their victoryOver the Spartan fleet; cp. Thuc. 4.14. with their ships, were preventing the conveyance of food to the land, the soldiers caught on the islandSphacteria. were in danger of death from starvation. Consequently the Lacedaemonians, fearing for the men left on the island, sent an embassy to Athens to discu the ending of the war. When no agreement was being reached, they asked for an exchange of men,The Lacedaemonians would get back the Spartans upon Sphacteria. the Athenians to get back an equal number of their soldiers now held prisoner; but not even to this would the Athenians agree. Whereupon the ambassadrisoners the Athenians acknowledged that Lacedaemonians were better men than they. Meanwhile the Athenians wore down the bodily strength of the Spartans on Sphacteria through their lack of provisions and accepted their formal surrender. Of the men who gave themselves up one hundred and twenty were Spartans and one h
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 72 (search)
vessels were driven on certain rocky places and broken to pieces on the bank. The Athenians concluded a truce with the Lacedaemonians for a year, on the terms that both of them should remain in possession of the places of which they were masters at the time. They held many discussions and were of the opinion that they should stop the war and put an end to their mutual rivalry; and the Lacedaemonians were eager to recover their citizens who had been taken captive at Sphacteria. When the truce had been concluded on the terms here mentioned, they were in entire agreement on all other matters, but both of them laid claim to Scione.This city, on the promontory of Pallene, revolted to Brasidas before it had learned of the signing of the truce, but in fact two days, as was later reckoned, after its signing (Thuc. 4.120 ff.). And so bitter a controversy followed that they renounced the truce and continued their war against each other over th
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 75 (search)
wer to take counsel regarding what would be of advantage to the city; and since much the same thing had also been done by the Lacedaemonians, the selfish ambitions of the two states were open for all to see. Many cities answered to the call of their common freedom, and since the Athenians were disdained by reason of the defeat they had suffered at Delium and the Lacedaemonians had had their fame reduced because of the capture of their citizens on the island of Sphacteria,See chap. 63. a large number of cities joined together and selected the city of the Argives to hold the position of leader. For this city enjoyed a high position by reason of its achievements in the past, since until the return of the HeracleidaeSee Book 4.57 ff. practically all the most important kings had come from the Argolis, and furthermore, since the city had enjoyed peace for a long time, it had received revenues of the greatest size and had a great store no
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XII, Chapter 76 (search)
The Lacedaemonians, seeing the Peloponnesus uniting against them and foreseeing the magnitude of the impending war, began exerting every possible effort to make sure their position of leadership. And first of all the Helots who had served with Brasidas in Thrace, a thousand in all, were given their freedom; then the Spartans, who had been taken prisoner on the island of Sphacteria and had been disgraced on the ground that they had diminished the glory of Sparta, were freed from their state of disgrace. Also, in pursuance of the same policy, by means of the commendations and honours accorded in the course of the war they were incited to surpass in the struggles which lay before them the deeds of valour they had already performed; and toward their allies they conducted themselves more equitably and conciliated the most unfavourably disposed of them with kindly treatment. The Athenians, on the contrary, desiring to strike with f
Diodorus Siculus, Library, Book XIII, Chapter 24 (search)
ing pity for the misfortune of the latter. For our ardour is broken whenever the former enemy, having by a change of fortune become a suppliant, submits to suffer whatever suits the pleasure of his conquerors. And the spirits of civilized men are gripped, I believe, most perhaps by mercy, because of the sympathy which nature has planted in all. The Athenians, for example, although in the Peloponnesian War they had blockaded many Lacedaemonians on the island of SphacteriaCp. Book 12.61 ff. and taken them captive, released them to the Spartans on payment of ransom. On another occasion the Lacedaemonians, when they had taken prisoner many of the Athenians and their allies, disposed of them in the same manner. And in so doing they both acted nobly. For hatred should exist between Greeks only until victory has been won and punishment only until the enemy has been overcome. And whoever goes farther and wreaks vengeance upon the vanq
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 13 (search)
claim to the throne was put forward by Areus son of Acrotatus, and Cleonymus took steps to induce Pyrrhus to enter the country. Before the battle of Leuctra371 B.C. the Lacedaemonians had suffered no disaster, so that they even refused to admit that they had yet been worsted in a land battle. For Leonidas, they said, had won the victory480 B.C., but his followers were insufficient for the entire destruction of the Persians; the achievement of Demosthenes and the Athenians on the island of Sphacteria425 B.C. was no victory, but only a trick in war. Their first reverse took place in Boeotia, and they afterwards suffered a severe defeat at the hands of Antipater and the Macedonians330 B.C.. Thirdly the war with Demetrius295 B.C. came as an unexpected misfortune to their land. Invaded by Pyrrhus and seeing a hostile army for the fourth time, they arrayed themselves to meet it along with the Argives and Messenians who had come as their allies. Pyrrhus won the day, and came near to captur
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 15 (search)
ng shows the foreigners in flight and pushing one another into the morass, while at the end of the painting are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks killing the foreigners who are scrambling into them. Here is also a portrait of the hero Marathon, after whom the plain is named, of Theseus represented as coming up from the under-world, of Athena and of Heracles. The Marathonians, according to their own account, were the first to regard Heracles as a god. Of the fighters the most conspicuous figures in the painting are Callimachus, who had been elected commander-in-chief by the Athenians, Miltiades, one of the generals, and a hero called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention later. Here are dedicated brazen shields, and some have an inscription that they are taken from the Scioneans and their allies421 B.C., while others, smeared with pitch lest they should be worn by age and rust, are said to be those of the Lacedaemonians who were taken prisoners in the island of Sphacteria.425 B.C.
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Laconia, chapter 5 (search)
tack himself against their rear. So Pausanias, fearing lest he should be caught between two enemy forces, made a truce with the Thebans and took up for burial those who had fallen under the wall of Haliartus. The Lacedaemonians disapproved of this decision, but the following reason leads me to approve it. Pausanias was well aware that the disasters of the Lacedaemonians always took place when they had been caught between two enemy forces, and the defeats at Thermopylae and on the island of Sphacteria made him afraid lest he himself should prove the occasion of a third misfortune for them. But when his fellow citizens charged him with his slowness in this Boeotian campaign, he did not wait to stand his trial, but was received by the people of Tegea as a suppliant of Athena Alea. Now this sanctuary had been respected from early days by all the Peloponnesians, and afforded peculiar safety to its suppliants, as the Lacedaemonians showed in the case of Pausanias and of Leotychides before hi
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