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tion. i is a metallic disk with radial slots and corresponding numbers. The strap is so rove through the slots as to give the required indication. Bag′ga-la. (Nautical.) A two-masted Arabian vessel, frequenting the Indian Ocean. A dhow. The capacity is from 200 to 250 tons. Bag′ging. (Fabric.) 1. A coarse fabric made of old ropes, hemp, etc., for covering cotton-bales. 2. The gunny-cloth of India is made from jute. In Bengal, from one or two species of Corchorus; in Bombay and Madras, from the Crotalaria juncea. Bag-hold′er. A contrivance to hold up a bag with the mouth open ready for filling. There are many forms, — some adapted for large grain-bags, others of a smaller size for flour, seeds; still smaller, for ordinary groceries and counter use. a has a platform on which the sack stands, and its weight spreads the horns within and distends the mouth of the sack. b has a holder adjustable as to hight, and a hopper to which the mouth of the
wing-machine. Cen′ter-sec′ond. A term applied to a watch or clock in which the second-hand is mounted on the central arbor and completes its revolution in one minute. It is more easily read than the ordinary second-hand traversing in its own small dial. The beat of the second-hand may be seconds, or fractions of a second. In the original form it beat with the balance, a third of a second at a beat. The largest center-second clock known to the writer is the turret-clock for the Bombay Harbor Board, which indicates hours, minutes, and seconds upon a dial 8 1/2 feet in diameter. The center-second hand measures 6 1/2 feet in length, and its end has a motion of 5 inches per second, acquiring a momentum which has been overcome by a series of sixty levers, so arranged that the second-hand rests in one of them at each beat; the point of the hand being so contrived that when it rests upon a lever it is detained there, and can get neither backwards nor forwards until the clock-wo
der the wales, and thinned to correspond with the thickness of the bottom plank. Ding-dong. (Horology.) A striking arrangement in which two bells of different tones are used and struck in succession to mark the quarter-hours. Dinged-work. Work embossed by blows which depress one surface and raise the other. See chasing. Din′gy. 1. A row-boat of the Hoogly, which probably gave the name to the little jolly-boat of the merchant-service, mentioned below. 2. A boat of Bombay, propelled by paddles, and having one mast and a settee-sail. 3. An extra boat of a ship for common uses. It is clinker-built, from 12 to 14 feet long, and has a beam one third of its length. Di-op′ter. An ancient altitude, angle, and leveling instrument; said to have been invented by Hipparchus. Dioptra. Di-op′tric light. The dioptric system of lighting, used in lighthouses, as distinguished from the catoptric, which is by reflectors. Refraction instead of reflection.
d the Rhone glacier, Canton Valais, Switzerland. The winding road is shown in the view, climbing up a spur of the mountain, which is immediately west of Mt. St. Gothard. See also views in Lippincott's magazine, Vol. VIII. p. 324; and London Engineer, Vol. XXXII., 1871, p. 233. The longest inclined plane on an artificial road is said to be that from Lima to Callao, which is about 6 miles, and has a descent of 511 feet, or about 1 in 60. The ascent from the Konkan, or flat country of Bombay, by the Western Ghauts to the table-land of the Deccan, is known as the Bhore Ghaut incline, in which the railway rises from the plain 2,000 feet in a series of steps 16 miles in length. The Righi Railway in Switzerland rises by a locomotive of peculiar form 1,170 feet in traversing 4,700. The boiler, furnace, and carriage are inclined so as to present a level floor on the slope. The inclined plane or railway of Mt. Washington is familiar to many tourists. In this connection the fo
ing magnetic observations, taking a large number in the course of his extensive travels and explorations, and calling the attention of the scientific world to the mode and importance of so doing. Observatories, provided with magnetometers and meteorological instruments, and with apparatus for ascertaining the time and true meridian, are now working in concert in many distant stations: Berlin, Paris, Freiburg, Greenwich, Gottingen, Montreal, Melbourne, Cape Town, St. Helena, Simla, Madras, Bombay, Singapore, and probably many other places. It is understood that the observations are made at the same instant of absolute time. Each day is divided into 12 equal periods of 2 hours each, termed the magnetic hours. The mean time at Gottingen is adopted; a tribute to the energy and skill of M. Gauss of the observatory in that city. Mr. Brooke's system of photographic registry is adopted throughout. Magnet-o-mo′tor. A voltaic series of two or more large plates which produce a
latitude 50° 55″ S., 144 inches have been known to fall in 40 days. At Sierra Leone, 314 inches fell in four months of 1838; 20 inches of which fell in two days. The average annual rainfall of Bengal is 200 inches; on the Bhore Ghaut, above Bombay, 220 inches frequently fall in four months. The greatest known rainfall in the world occurs in some parts of India. At Mahubalechoar, on the western slope of the Ghauts, 4,461 feet above the sea, the average yearly fall during a period of f England it rains 150 days in the year. In Kazan it rains 90 days in the year. In Siberia it rains 60 days in the year. On the Dofrefelds of Norway it rains and mists nearly continually an aggregate of 82 inches per annum; about equal to Bombay, Havana, Sierra Leone. Humboldt estimates the average rainfall at the equator, 96 inches; at latitude 19° 80 inches; at latitude 45°, 29 inches at latitude 60°, 17 inches. According to Professor Thomson, the average number of days on which <
favor of the latter, and the trial on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was to encourage invention on the latter plan. The London and Blackwall Railway of 6 1/2 miles was opened in 1841, and the cars were drawn by a wire rope passing over drums driven by steam-engines at each end. These were retained for several years, but eventually locomotives were substituted. See rope-Railway. Steam Street-car. Wire ropes and stationary engines are still used on grades, as at the Ghauts above Bombay; at Madison, Indiana, in climbing the river hill; at Mauch Chunk and other steep places in Pennsylvania; in the mines where a gradual slope forms the upcast shaft; on the Morris and Essex Canal, N. J.; and elsewhere. The Portage Railway of Pennsylvania had formerly ten inclined planes overcoming an elevation of about 1,400 feet, going west. The western terminus of the railway is about 1,173 feet below the summit level. See inclined plane, pages 1174– 1177. Truck and machinery of the Bax
42 1869*Corfu to Santa Maura50160 1869*Santa Maura to Ithaca7180 1869Ithaca to Cephalonia7 1869*Cephalonia to Zante1060 1869Bushire, Persia, to Jask50597 1869Brest, France, to St. Pierre2,5842,760 1869St. Pierre to Duxbury, U. S.749259 1869Moen to Bornholm, Sweden8028 1869Bornholm, Sweden, to Libau23062 1870Scotland to Orkney Isles37 1870Salcombe, England, to Brignogan, France10159 1870Beachy Head to Cape Antifer7034 1870Suez, Egypt, to Aden, Arabia1,460968 1870Aden, Arabia, to Bombay1,8182,060 1870Porthcurno, England, to Lisbon8232,625 1870Lisbon to Gibraltar331535 1870Gibraltar to Malta1,1201,450 1870*Porthcurno to Mid Channel6562 1870Marseilles, France, to Bona, Africa4471,600 1870Bona, Africa, to Malta386650 1870Madras to Penang1,4081,284 1870Penang to Singapore40036 1870Singapore to Batavia55722 1870Malta to Alexandria, Egypt9041,440 1870Batabano, Cuba, to Santiago, Cuba520 1870Jersey to Guernsey1632 1870Guernsey to Alderney1830 1870Santa Maura to Ithac