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al neighbors by the way in which they mended castiron kettles and pots, which were supposed to be irretrievably ruined. The first notice of it by Europeans appears to have been by Van Braam, in 1794-95, who was attached to the Dutch Embassy at Pekin, and who afterwards settled in the United States. The figure represents the itinerant artist with his portable forge, at work in the street. The front half of the wooden chest is his Fung-Seang, or bellows. Its principle is that of the doubl lens, of 16 inches diameter and weight 21 pounds, was used to concentrate the rays, the focal distance being then 63 inches, the diameter of focus 1/2 inch. This lens was carried to China by an officer in the suite of Lord Macartney, and left at Pekin. The effects of the burning arrangement were as follows: — Weight.Time. Substances.Grains.Seconds. Gold (pure)204 Silver (pure)203 Copper (pure)3320 Platinum (pure)103 Nickel163 Bar-iron1012 Cast-iron103 Steel1012 Topaz345 Emeral
and the Danube, so as to connect the German Ocean and the Black Sea. The first canal in England was the Caerdike, cut by the Romans. Canals were constructed in China before the Christian era. No mention is made of canals in the Bible. The largest hydraulic works therein mentioned are those of Solomon, who introduced abundant water for baths, gardens, and fish-ponds, — aqueducts, not canals. The largest canal in the world is the Imperial Canal of China, which extends southward from Pekin and unites the Pei-ho with the Yang-tseKiang. A part of the canal was constructed in the seventh century, and a part in the ninth, A. D. It is 825 miles long, and with its connected rivers gives an inland navigation of 2,000 miles, and connects 41 cities. Authorities differ as to whether the Chinese canals overcome grades by locks or inclined planes. It is to be presumed they have both. From the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries canals in the Netherlands were made in great numbers.
o saw asunder an adversary's line, should it become fouled, when flying on a wager or for sport. The Celestials put as much enthusiasm into the business as do the owners of trim wherries, fast nags, fleet greyhounds, rampant game-cocks, surly bull-dogs, dapper terriers, or the other thousand and one devices or excuses for actively wasting time. Chinese kites are sometimes furnished with various aeolian attachments which imitate the songs of birds or the voices of men. The pigeons also in Pekin are frequently provided with a very light kind of aeolian harp, which is secured tightly to the two central feathers of their tails, so that in flying through the air the harps sound harmoniously. The frame of the Japanese bird kite is made of thin bamboo, and is covered with colored paper. The wings, which are somewhat concave, and fall back a little, are dark maroon, and the body and tail represent a bird. Small white twine is used. By various devices, the hoverering and soaring of a
Steel10 grains in 12 seconds. Common slate10 grains in 2 seconds. A topaz3 grains in 45 seconds. An emerald2 grains in 25 seconds. Crystal7 grains in 6 seconds. Lava10 grains in 7 seconds. Flint10 grains in 30 seconds. Jasper10 grains in 25 seconds. Carnelian10 grains in 75 seconds. Pumice-stone10 grains in 24 seconds. Wood burned immediately; water flashed into steam; bones fell into a calcined form at once. This glass was carried to China by Lord Macartney, and was left in Pekin. It was probably stolen or destroyed in the sacking of the summer palace by the allies. A flint-glass lens, weighing 224 pounds, was exhibited at the London Exposition, 1851. A burning-lens of great power may be obtained by fixing two circular disks of thin glass at the opposite ends of a tube, say 1 inch long, and injecting into the space between them, under pressure, turpentine, bleached oil, or other liquid of high refractive power. When the glass attains the required curvature,
other elements of terrestrial magnetism to be observed; and during the thirteenth century the Chinese philosopher, Keon-tsoung-chi, observed the variation of the needle from the cardinal points to the extent of 2° to 2° 30′. The French savans in Pekin, a few years since, determined it to be about the same. In common with all European nations the variation was spoken of by the Frenchmen as a variation from the north towards the west; but the Chinese, who respected the south more than the northd by Sebastian Cabot in 1540. The Chinaman says:— A point of iron touched by the loadstone receives the power of indicating the south; still it declines towards the east, and does not point exactly towards the south. French observations at Pekin confirm this, only stating it to be a variation from the north of 2° to 2° 30′ to the west; while the Chinese, insisting on their mode of stating it, set it down as being from 2° to 2° 30′ to the east. Columbus first noted a line of no
he post at the head or foot of a stairs, supporting the hand-rail. The center-post of a winding stairs is a solid newel. Winding stairs around a central well are said to have an open newel or hollow newel. 2. (Shipwrighting.) An upright piece of timber to receive the tenons of the rails that lead from the breastwork of the gangway. New-sand. (Founding.) Facing-sand. News′pa-per. The newspaper, like many other useful inventions, seems to have originated in China. The Pekin Gazette, the oldest daily in the world, was first issued about A. D. 1350. This is still in existence, and is an official journal, containing such information as the government chooses to make known. It is composed of three parts: 1. The court journal, or copy of the door of the palace, which announces day by day the list of functionaries on duty, the actions of the emperor, the presentations, visits, departures, etc.; 2. The imperial decrees; 3. The reports of the great officers of the
t in 1793, to be sent out with Lord Macartney on his embassy to China, as a present to the emperor of the Celestial Flowery Land. It was said to have been ample and scrupulously correct. Whether the English and French mashed it when they sacked Pekin, about seventy years afterward, we do not know. In the lower planetarium (Fig. 3791), the globe representing the sun is supported on a central shaft, around which are arranged a series of sleeves, corresponding in number to the planets of the now in use in China are of similar form to our own. The works of Gotama, under the title of Verbal instructions, are published by the Chinese government in four languages, — Thibetan, Mongol, Mantchou, and Chinese, — from the Imperial press at Pekin, in 800 large volumes. The name of this founder of Buddhism was Arddha Chiddi. He was born about 1700 B. C., at Capila, near Nepaul. This religion now embraces Ceylon, Tartary, Thibet, China, Japan, and Burmah. He changed his name to Gotama,
rmagh, Ireland36.12 Aberdeen, Scotland28.87 Glasgow, Scotland21.33 Bergen, Norway88.61 Stockholm20.4 Copenhagen18.35 Berlin23.56 Mannheim22.47 Prague14.1 Cracow13.3 Brussels28.06 Paris22.64 Geneva31.07 Milan38.01 Rome30.86 Naples29.64 Marseilles23.4 Lisbon27.1 Coimbra Port118.8 Bordeaux34.00 Algiers36.99 St Petersburg17.3 Simpheropol, Crimea14.83 Kutais (E shore of Black Sea)59.44 Bakou (S of Caspian)13.38 Ekatherinburg, Ural Mts.14.76 Barnaoul, Siberia11.80 Pekin, China26.93 Canton, China69.30 Singapore, Malacca97 Sierra Leone, Africa86.2 Uttray Mullay, India267.2 Madras, India44.6 Calcutta, India76.4 Cherrapoonjee, India592 Khasia, India610 Raised up-on′. (Shipbuilding.) Having the upper works hightened; the opposite of razeed. Rais′er. (Carpentry.) The front of a step. The elevation of a step. A riser. The flat portion of a step is the tread. Rais′ing. 1. (Metal-working.) The process of forming circular work or emb
ese merchant, in dealing with the Abbe as a supposed Tartar, had purposely made a mistake on the swan-pan to the extent of 1,000 sapecks, equal to 50 cents. The Abbe showed him his calculation in figures, which were utterly incomprehensible to the merchant; but a third party verifying the Abbeas computation by a correct manipulation of the swan-pan, the wonder became a marvel. The Indian (Arabic) figures and numeration were introduced by Roman missionaries into the astronomical college of Pekin. Swan-pan, or Chinese abacus. The knotted cord was used as a means of notation in the reign of the Chinese Emperor Fuh-hi 2852 B. C. (Du Halde.) Hence the rosary, common in Thibet and in Europe. See ro-Sary; praying-machine. In addition to what is said under abacus (which see), it may be stated: Upon a bas-relief of the Capitol is a Trajan and a Plotina, and near them a young man holding an abacus, upon which are three ranks of counters, 7, 1, and 6; his forefinger touches o
enturies. They baked their varnish on clay, with a moderate heat, we may suppose. It does not appear that they had any true glaze. That came from China many a long year after. See glaze; pottery. The Chinese are said to make varnish by beating together fresh blood with quicklime, which is extensively used as a coating for wooden articles which they wish to make completely water-tight. Von Scherzer, who first introduced this substance to the notice of Europeans, says he has seen in Pekin wooden chests that had been varnished with it, which, after a journey over Siberia to St. Petersburg and back, were still sound and perfectly water-tight. Even baskets of straw used for the transportation of oils are made fit for the purpose by means of this varnish. Pasteboard coated with it becomes, both in appearance and firmness, like wood. Articles requiring to be absolutely impervious are varnished twice, or at the most three times, by the Chinese. See also lacquer. Var′nish
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