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askets made of palm-leaves are preserved in the British Museum. The ancient Britons excelled in making baskets, which were largely exported and sold for high prices at Rome. British articles were transported to Rome in baskets, and the British name for these hampers was there retained, — bascuda. The Welsh preserve it as basgawd. When Britain was first known to the Romans, the natives made boats of basket-work covered with hides, and boats made in a similar way are still used in parts of Wales. See coracle. Boats of split bamboo, woven like basket-work, are used in Hindostan, and in some parts of South America rush baskets capable of holding water are made by the natives. A two-horse carriage of basket-work, termed a Holstein wagon, is used in some parts of Europe, and this material is very commonly employed in the United States for the bodies of sleighs, and sometimes for pony phaetons. Rattan is, however, the neater and more desirable material. For the finer kinds of bas
proximate to enable the letters to be readily distinguished. Instead of the ink of transfer, chemically prepared paper has been used, which was acted upon by the spark, giving visible dots at the points of chemical reaction. Coracle Cor′a-cle. A form of canoe used in Egypt and in Britain from the earliest periods of history. It consists of a light wooden frame covered with hides, and capable of being carried on the shoulders. The coracle is still in use in the West of England, Wales, and in some parts of Ireland. The same kind of boat is yet used upon the river BoTchou, in Thibet, as mentioned by the Abbe Huc, in his Travels in Tartary and Thibet, 1844 – 46. It was composed of ox-hides, solidly sewn together, and kept in shape by some light triangles of bamboo . . . . The man then took his boat again upon his back, and rode off. The birch-bark canoe differs mainly from this in the material wherewith it is covered. See canoe. Cor′bel. (Architecture.) Or
ess made. It may be remarked that Evans used a cylindrical flue-boiler. Next, perhaps, we should state the work of the man who has done more than any other one man to make the locomotive what it is: Richard Trevethick of Merthyr Tydvil, in South Wales. He had not got over the idea of the necessity for something more than the weight of the engine to give tractional adherence to the rails, and used a cog-wheel and rack rail. (See locomotive.) He used a blast of exhaust steam in the chimney,Glasgow, Scotland, and patented in 1828. In 1845, Budd patented in England the utilization of the heated gases from the blastfurnace for heating the blast. By means of the hot-blast, anthracite coals were used successfully in smelting iron in Wales, in 1837, and at Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania, in 1838, 1839. Hot-blast Fur′nace. The temperature of the air, previous to its being thrown upon the charge in the furnace, is raised to about 600° in an outer chamber or in a series of pipes. Th
Cort, of Gosport, in 1784, made it practicable, and added grooved rolls, by which the puddled bar was drawn. Neilson, of Glasgow, introduced the hot blast in 1828. Aubulot, in France, in 1811, and Budd, in England, in 1845, heated the blast by the escaping hot gases of the blast-furnace. The Calder works, in 1831, demonstrated the needlessness of coking when hot blast is employed. Experiments in smelting with anthracite coal were tried at Mauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Mass
. A vat for holding a bleaching liquor. The alkaline vat of a bleachery. See Buckingkier. Kel′lach. A wicker sledge or cart used in Scotland. Kem′e-lin. A brewer's vessel. Ke-men′geh. An Arab violoncello, with two strings. Kemps. 1. Impurities of fur; that is, knots and hairs which do not possess the felting property. 2. The coarse, rough hairs of some grades of wool. Ken′net. (Nautical.) A kevel or large cleat. Ken′nets. A coarse cloth made in Wales. Kent-bu′gle. The key-bugle invented by Logier early in this century, and named after the Duke of Kent, the father of Queen Victoria. It has six keys, and is the predecessor of the great tribe of cornets. Kent-ledge. Pigs of iron for permanent ballast, laid over the keelson-plates. Ke′per. A German twilled linen goods resembling marsella. Kofer. Ker′a-tome. A surgical knife used in the operation for artificial pupil. Also called iridectome or artificial-p
from 35 to 40 pounds per yard. Many engineers advocate a 3-feet gage or one even narrower for some purposes or localities. The narrowest in actual operation, so far as we are aware, only two feet, is the Portmadoc and Festiniog Railway in North Wales, through a very difficult country. This was originally designed as a tramway for the transportation of slate, stone, and other minerals from the hills of Merionethshire to the sea, but has since been used for passengers and general freight. Little wonder (Portmadoc and Festiniog Railway, South Wales). Fig. 3296 represents an engine, called the Little wonder, employed on this road. It weighs 19 1/2 tons, and was first tested by a train 854 feet in length, consisting of 90 slate and 7 passenger cars, weighing 75 tons, constituting in all a load of 94 1/2 tons, which it drew at a speed varying from 14 1/2 to 26 1/4 miles an hour. Some of the curves on this road have a radius of but 1 3/4 chains. It is stated that an engine
ing-planks, as occasion requires. Plank′ing. 1. (Shipbuilding.) The skin or wooden covering of plank on the exterior and interior surfaces of the ribs and on the beams. A line of planking is a strake, and is named from its position; as, garboard-strake, bilge-strake, side-strake, shear-strake, etc. When the seam between two planks is straight, it is said to be fair-edged: when it is sloped, it is called anchor-stock or top and butt, according to the character of the sloping. Wales are strakes of thicker plank. The term is used in shipbuilding, and also in piling. See pile, page 1700. 2. (Spinning.) The splicing together of slivers of long-stapled wool. See breaking-machine. 3. (Steam.) The lagging or clothing of a steamcylinder. Cleading. Plank′ing-clamp. (Shipwrighting.) An implement for bending a strake against the ribs of a vessel and holding it till secured by bolts or treenails. In Fig. 3801 the chain-hooks catch against the ribs and af<
f two or three miles, and intended to keep them clear of ice and snow. The first steel rail was made in 1857, by Mushet, at the Ebbw-Vale Iron Co.'s Works in South Wales. It was rolled from cast blooms of Bessemer steel and laid down at Derby, England, and remained sixteen years, during which time 250 trains and at least 250 deast few years a number of tracks have been laid of narrower gage even than this, varying from 3 feet even down to 1 foot 11 1/2 inches, as the Festiniog Railway in Wales. See Fig. 3296, page 1512. Mr. Fairlie, in a paper read before the British Association, asserts that the proportion of non-paying to paying weight which an engd thereon. The four principal ones were, — 1. Watling Street; from Kent, by way of London, to Cardigan Bay, in Wales. 2. Ikenild Street; from St. David's, Wales, by way of Birmingham, Derby, and York, to Tynemouth, England. 3. Fosse Way; from Cornwall to Lincoln. 4. Ermin Street; from St. David's to Southampton. I
on Machine. (continued). No.Name.Date. 42,976WalesMay 31, 1864. 50,451ChilcottOct. 17, 1865. 10he Marshfield Iron-Works, of Caermarthenshire, Wales, made a sheet of the same dimensions, weighings of Ybron, six miles southeast of Bangor in N. Wales, sixteen of these stages are in progress togeMauch Chunk in 1820, in France in 1827, and in Wales successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blastrks, England, and afterward of Merthyr Tydvil, Wales, and was designed to render clearly audible thvessel's side; reaching from stem to stern. Wales, in merchant-vessels, are strakes below the sheferring to a steamcar on rails, originated in Wales. The list of early inventors is about as follows: — Trevethick (Wales)1802Stephenson (England)1825 Blenkinsop (England)1811Stephenson (EnglandNashville, Tenn650Foster. MenaiMenai StraitsWales570431826Telford. UnionTweedGreat Britain44930enna33421.41828Von Mitis. ConwayArm of the seaWales32722.331826Telford. Chain PierBrighton, Engla[1 more.
ta to Tripoli, Africa230335 1861*Tripoli, Africa, to Bengazi, Africa508420 1861*Bengazi, Africa, to Alexandria, Egypt59380 1861Dieppe, France, to Newhaven, England8025 1861*Toulon, France, to Corsica1951,550 1862Wexford, Ireland, to Aberman, Wales6350 1862Lowestoft, Eng., to Zandvoort, Holland12527 Date.FromLength in Miles.Greatest Depth in Fathoms. 1863*Cagliari, Sardinia, to Sicily2111,025 1864*Cartagena, Spain, to Oran, Africa1301,420 1864Gwadur, India, to Elphinstone Inlet, Ind very reluctantly gave up the idea of supporting it by chains. The most remarkable one ever constructed is that across the Menai Straits, on the Chester and Holyhead line of railway, and which unites the island of Anglesea with the mainland of Wales. Plate LXXII. is a general view of the Britannia Bridge from the Caernarvon side, showing also the Menai suspension-bridge. A mile distant from it is the famous Telford suspension-bridge, built in 1829 by that prince of road-makers. Telford
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