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Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 3, chapter 159 (search)
Thus Babylon was taken a second time, and when Darius was master of the Babylonians, he destroyed their walls and tore away all their gates, neither of which Cyrus had done at the first taking of Babylon; moreover he impaled about three thousand men that were prominent among them; as for the rest, he gave them back their city to lBabylon; moreover he impaled about three thousand men that were prominent among them; as for the rest, he gave them back their city to live in. Further, as the Babylonians, fearing for their food, had strangled their own women, as I described above, Darius provided wives to give them a posterity by appointing that each of the neighboring nations should send a certain number of women to Babylon; the sum of the women thus collected was fifty thousand: these were the for their food, had strangled their own women, as I described above, Darius provided wives to give them a posterity by appointing that each of the neighboring nations should send a certain number of women to Babylon; the sum of the women thus collected was fifty thousand: these were the mothers of those who now inhabit the city.
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 3, chapter 160 (search)
There never was in Darius' judgment any Persian before or after who did better service than Zopyrus, except Cyrus, with whom no Persian could compare himself. Many times Darius is said to have declared that he would rather Zopyrus were free of disfigurement than have twenty Babylons on top of the one he had. He honored him very much; every year he sent him such gifts as the Persians hold most precious, and let him govern Babylon all his life with no tribute to pay, giving him many other things besides. This Zopyrus was the father of Megabyzus, who was general of an army in Egypt against the Athenians and their allies; and Megabyzus' son was that Zopyrus who deserted from the Persians to Athens.
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 4, chapter 1 (search)
After taking Babylon, Darius himself marched against the Scythians. For since Asia was bursting with men and vast revenues were coming in, Darius desired to punish the Scythians for the wrong they had begun when they invaded Media first and defeated those who opposed them in battle. For the Scythians, as I have said before, ruled upper AsiaThat is, the eastern highlands of the Persian empire. for twenty-eight years; they invaded Asia in their pursuit of the Cimmerians, and ended the power of the Medes, who were the rulers of Asia before the Scythians came. But when the Scythians had been away from their homes for twenty-eight years and returned to their country after so long an absence, as much trouble as their Median war awaited them. They found themselves opposed by a great force; for the Scythian women, when their husbands were away for so long, turned to their slaves.
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 4, chapter 198 (search)
In my opinion, there is in no part of Libya any great excellence for which it should be compared to Asia or Europe, except in the region which is called by the same name as its river, Cinyps. But this region is a match for the most fertile farmland in the world, nor is it at all like to the rest of Libya. For the soil is black and well-watered by springs, and has no fear of drought, nor is it harmed by drinking excessive showers (there is rain in this part of Libya). Its yield of grain is of the same measure as in the land of Babylon. The land inhabited by the Euhesperitae is also good; it yields at the most a hundredfold; but the land of the Cinyps region yields three hundredfold.
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 7, chapter 62 (search)
The Medes in the army were equipped like the Persians; indeed, that fashion of armor is Median, not Persian. Their commander was Tigranes, an Achaemenid. The Medes were formerly called by everyone Arians,Modern philology gives the name “Aryan” of course a very much wider extension; which indeed was beginning even in the time of Strabo. but when the Colchian woman Medea came from Athens to the Arians they changed their name, like the Persians. This is the Medes' own account of themselves. The Cissians in the army were equipped like the Persians, but they wore turbans instead of caps. Their commander was Anaphes son of Otanes. The HyrcaniansNot mentioned in the list of Darius subjects in Hdt. 3; they lived on the S.E. coast of the Caspian. were armed like the Persians; their leader was Megapanus, who was afterwards the governor of Babylon
Herodotus, The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley), Book 7, chapter 139 (search)
For he was manifestly more concerned about the war in Cyprus than about any other, and regarded Evagoras as a more powerful and formidable antagonist than Cyrus, who had disputed the throne with him.Cf. Xen. Anab. 1 for the famous expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II. See Isoc. 4.145. The most convincing proof of this statement is this: when the king heard of the preparations Cyrus was making he viewed him with such contempt that because of his indifference Cyrus almost stood at the doors of his palace before he was aware of him.The battle of Cunaxa （401 B.C.） in which Cyrus was slain. The distance from Babylon, according to Xenophon, was 360 stades （c. 45 miles）. With regard to Evagoras, however, the king had stood in terror of him for so long a time that even while he was receiving benefits from him he had undertaken to make war upon him—a wrongful act, indeed, but his purpose was not altogether unre
Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (ed. William Whiston, A.M.), Book 1, section 115 (search)
Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (ed. William Whiston, A.M.), Book 1, section 130 (search)
Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (ed. William Whiston, A.M.), Book 1, section 158 (search)
Berosus mentions our father Abram without naming him, when he says thus: "In the tenth generation after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man righteous and great, and skillful in the celestial science." But Hecatseus does more than barely mention him; for he composed, and left behind him, a book concerning him. And Nicolaus of Damascus, in the fourth book of his History, says thus: "Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner, who came with an army out of the land above Babylon, called the land of the Chaldeans: but, after a long time, he got him up, and removed from that country also, with his people, and went into the land then called the land of Canaan, but now the land of Judea, and this when his posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another work. Now the name of Abram is even still famous in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a village named from him, The Habitation of Abram." THAT WHEN THERE WAS A FAMINE I