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llis to Lords of Trade. Thus was blood fist shed after the peace of Aix la Chapelle. Fort Lawrence was now built on the south of the Messagouche, but the French had already fortified their position on the opposite bank at Fort Beau Sejour as well as at Bay Verte. Having posts also at the mouth of the St. John's River and the alliance of the neighboring Indians, they held the continent from Bay Verte to the borders of the Penobscot. Such was the state of occupancy, when, in September, at Paris, Shirley, who had been placed at the head of the British Commission, presented a memorial, claiming for the English all the land east of the Penobscot and south of the St. Lawrence, as constituting the ancient Acadia. Memorials of the English Commissaries, 21 Sept., 1750. The claim, in its full latitude, by the law of nations, was preposterous; by a candid interpretation of treaties, was untenable. France never had designed to cede, and had never ceded, to England, the southern bank of t
of red men; Letter from Jonathan Edwards, August, 1751. and they resolved to ruin the English interest in the remoter West, and take vengeance on the Miamis. Yet Louis the Fifteenth disclaimed hostile intentions; to the British minister at Paris he himself expressed personally his concern that any cause of offence had arisen, and affirmed his determined purpose of peace. The minister of foreign relations, De Puysieux, who, on the part of France, was responsible for the treaty of Aix-la-found the Lords of Trade bent on sustaining the extended limits of America. In the study of the Western World no one of them was so persevering and indefatigable as Charles Townshend. The elaborate memorial on the limits of Acadia, delivered in Paris, by the English commissioners, in January, 1753, was entirely his work, Reply of the English Commissaries, in All the Memorials, &c. Note to page 195. Jasper Mauduit to the Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly, 12 March, 1763. and, though uns
in of the Ohio, Washington broke the repose of mankind, and waked a chap. V.} 1754. struggle, which could admit only of a truce, till the ancient bulwarks of Catholic legitimacy were thrown down. An action of about a quarter of an hour ensued. Ten of the French were killed; among them Jumonville, the commander of the party; and twenty-one were made prisoners. When the tidings of this affray crossed the Atlantic, the name of Washington was, for the first time, heard in the saloons of Paris. The partisans of absolute monarchy pronounced it with execration. They foreboded the loss of the Western World; and the flatterers of Louis the Fifteenth and of Madame Pompadour, the high-born panders to royal lust, outraged the fair fame of the spotless hero as a violator of the laws of nations. What courtier, academician, or palace menial would have exchanged his hope of fame with that of the calumniated American? The death of Jumonville became the subject for loudest complaint; this
ervent conflict of opinion. The people and their guides recognised the dignity of labor; the oppressed peasantry took up arms for liberty; men reverenced and exercised the freedom of the soul. The breath of the new spirit moved over the earth; it revived Poland, animated Germany, swayed the North; and the inquisition of Spain could not silence its whispers among the mountains of the Peninsula. It invaded France; and though bonfires, by way of warning, were made of heretics at the gates of Paris, it infused itself into the French mind, and led to unwonted free discussions. Exile could not quench it. On the banks of the Lake of Geneva, Calvin stood forth the boldest reformer of his day; not personally engaging in political intrigues, yet, by promulgating great ideas, forming the seedplot of revolution; bowing only to the Invisible; acknowledging no sacrament of ordination but the choice of the laity, no patent of nobility but that of the elect of God, with its seals of eternity.
ders of Ulster and Orange counties, they turned all their thoughts to the capture of Oswego. De Lery, leaving Montreal in March with a party of more than three hundred men, hastened over ice and snow along the foot of mountains; by roads known to savages alone, they penetrated to Fort Bull, at the Oneida portage, gained it after a short struggle and a loss of three men, destroyed its stores, and returned with thirty prisoners to Montreal. Journal, &c., from October, 1755, to June, 1756. Paris Doc., XII., 18. Near the end of May, eight hundred men, led by the intrepid and prudent De Villiers, made their palisaded camp under the shelter of a thicket near the mouth of Sandy Creek. From this place he could send little parties to hover round chap. X.} 1756. the passes of Onondaga River, and intercept supplies for Oswego. Of the Six Nations, the four lower ones, the Onondagas, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Mohawks, assembled in council, and sent thirty of their chiefs to Montreal to soli
minister of war, and soon annexed to these chap. XVII.} 1761. March departments the care of the marine. It is certain, said Grimaldi, the Spanish ambassador at Paris, they ardently wish for a negotiation for peace here. Kaunitz, of Austria, who might well believe that Silesia was about to be recovered for his sovereign, interpSenegal, perhaps Goree also, and the ascendency in the East Indies to England, and to France nothing but Minorca to exchange for her losses in the West Indies, all Paris believed peace to be certain. George the Third wished it from his heart; and though Fuentes, the Spanish ambassador at London, irritated by the haughtiness of Pitlassan: Hist. de la Diplomatie Francaise, VI. 399. and the circumspect, distrustful Hans Stanley, who dared only reflect the will of his employer, made his way to Paris. But the frank haughtiness and inflexibility of Pitt were apparent from the beginning; and Choiseul, deluding himself no more with belief in peace, employed the r
hat of his brother, Earl of Temple, at the installation. Lord Egremont was wise enough to fly into a passion in the closet. I have but one sentiment to offer, said he to the king,—which is, to send the Duke of Bedford fixed articles for the preliminaries, upon no event to be changed, and if the French refuse to comply, immediately to recall him. The sentiment, said George, who repeated the conversation, is totally different from mine; a boy of ten years old might as well have been sent to Paris on this errand. The secretary yielded, and some subjects were left at the discretion of Bedford; but Bute, with singular perfidy, indirectly, through the Sardinian minister, and in his own handwriting, communicated Wiffen's House of Russell, II. 506. to the French ambassador the decision adopted, and even minutes of the advice given by the various members of the cabinet council, on condition that the details should be kept religiously from Spain, and from the Duke of Bedford. Thus the m
Lind's three letters to Price. 137. the consequences of the entire cession of Canada are obvious. I am persuaded, and afterwards he himself recalled his prediction to the notice of the British ministry, Lord Stormont, British Ambassador at Paris, to Lord Rochford, Secretary of State. No. 19. Separate. 31 October, 1775.— England will ere long repent of having removed the only check that could keep her colonies in awe. They stand no longer in need of her protection; she will call on them to contribute towards supporting the burdens they have helped to bring on her; and they will answer by striking off all dependence. Lord Mansfield, also, used often to declare that he too, ever since the peace of Paris, always thought the Northern Colonies were meditating a state of independency on Great Britain. Lord Mansfield in the House of Lords, 20 Dec. 1775, in Almon. v. 167. Force, VI. 233. The colonial system, being founded on injustice, was at war with itself. The principle