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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Berlin decree, the. (search)
Berlin decree, the. In 1803 England joined the Continental powers against Napoleon. England, offended because of the seizure of Hanover by the Prussians, at the instigation of Napoleon, made the had dissolved the German Empire, prostrated Prussia at his feet, and, from the Imperial Camp at Berlin, he issued (Nov. 21, 1806) the famous decree in which he declared the British Islands in a state7, 1807, from his Palace at Milan, a decree which extended and made more vigorous that issued at Berlin. It declared every vessel which should submit to be searched by British cruisers. or should pa, had said that if England would revoke her blockade against France, the latter would revoke her Berlin decree. Minister Pinkney, in London, approached the British minister on the subject, and, to aiing to comply. The French minister thereupon, on Aug. 5 following, officially declared that the Berlin and Milan decrees had been revoked, and would be inoperative after Nov. 1, it being understood t
ng the allied forces met with resistance from the Chinese army and had to overcome it by force. Inasmuch as China has recognized her responsibility, expressed great regret, and evinced a desire to see an end put to the situation created by the aforesaid disturbances, the powers have determined to accede to her request upon the irrevocable conditions enumerated below, which they deem indispensable to expiate the crimes committed and to prevent their recurrence: I. A. The despatch to Berlin of an extraordinary mission headed by an imperial prince, in order to express the regrets of his Majesty the Emperor of China and of the Chinese government for the assassination of his Excellency the late Baron von Ketteler, minister of Germany. B. The erection on the spot of the assassination of a commemorative monument befitting the rank of the deceased, bearing an inscription in the Latin, German, and Chinese languages, expressing the regrets of the Emperor of China for the murder.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Civil service, United States colonial. (search)
rmany, although a late competitor in the field of colonial and commercial expansion, has realized as fully as England and France the importance of trained men in the public service, and the seminary for the study of modern Oriental languages at Berlin is one of the most systematically equipped in the world. The teaching force is made up both of Germans and of Orientals, who teach their native tongues, and includes instructors in Arabic (2), Chinese (2), Japanese (2), Gujarati, Persian, Hindustani, Syrian Arabic, Maroccan Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, Turkish (2), Swahili (2), Hausa (2), Russian and modern Greek, in the technique of the natural sciences, the hygiene of the tropics, and tropical botany. The unequalled opportunities in both Berlin and Paris for studying anthropology, ethnology, comparative religions, and all branches of geographical science need not be set forth here. This brief review of what Holland, England, France, and Germany are doing to obtain trained men for the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Commissioners to foreign courts. (search)
oners were urged to press the subject of a treaty of alliance and commerce. Commissioners were also appointed to other European courts in 1777—Arthur Lee to that of Madrid; his brother William (lately one of the sheriffs of London) to Vienna and Berlin, and Ralph Izard, of South Carolina, to Florence. All but the French mission were failures. Arthur Lee was not allowed to enter Madrid, and went on a fruitless errand to Germany; Izard made no attempt to visit Florence, and William Lee visited d; his brother William (lately one of the sheriffs of London) to Vienna and Berlin, and Ralph Izard, of South Carolina, to Florence. All but the French mission were failures. Arthur Lee was not allowed to enter Madrid, and went on a fruitless errand to Germany; Izard made no attempt to visit Florence, and William Lee visited Berlin without accomplishing anything. There his papers were stolen from him, through the contrivance, it was believed, of the British resident minister. See ambassado
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Consular service, the (search)
nary and minister plenipotentiary to Greece, Rumania, and Servia, and serves in all the above offices for one and the same salary. The consul-general at Havana receives $6,000, and the consul-general at Melbourne $4,500. There are twelve offices where $5,000 are paid, viz.: Rio de Janeiro, Shanghai, Paris, Calcutta, Hong-Kong, Liverpool, London, Port au Prince, Rome, Teheran, Cairo, and Bangkok (where the consul is also minister resident); seven offices where $4,000 are paid, viz.: Panama, Berlin, Montreal, Honolulu, Kanagawa, Monrovia, and Mexico; seven where $3,500 are paid, viz.: Vienna, Amoy, Canton, Tientsin, Havre, Halifax, and Callao; thirty-one where $3,000 are paid; thirty where $2,500 are paid; and fifty-one where $2,000 are paid. The remaining ninety-five of the salaried officers receive salaries of only $1,500 or $1,000 per annum. Consular officers are not allowed their travelling expenses to and from their posts, no matter how distant the latter may be. They are simp
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Curtis, George William 1824- (search)
Curtis, George William 1824- Editor; born in Providence, R. I., Feb. 24, 1824; became a member of the Brook farm Association (q. v.) in 1842. In 1846 he went abroad, and, after spending a year in Italy, entered the University of Berlin, where he saw the revolutionary movements of 1848. He spent two years in travelling in George William Curtis. Europe, Egypt, and Syria, returning to the United States in 1850, in which year he published Nile notes of a Howadji. He joined the editorial staff of the New York Tribune, and was one of the original editors of Putnam's monthly. He was for many years an eloquent and successful lyceum lecturer, and was generally regarded as one of the most accomplished orators in the United States. In 1867 he became editor of Harper's weekly, and was extremely influential. In his writings and speeches he was a very efficient supporter of the Republican party for nearly a generation. He contributed a vast number of very able short essays through H
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Dana, Francis, 1743-1811 (search)
of the Continental Congress from 1776 to 1778, and again in 1784; member of the board of war, Nov. 17, 1777; and was at the head of a committee charged with the entire reorganization of the army. When Mr. Adams went on an embassy to negotiate a treaty of peace and commerce with Great Britain, Mr. Dana was secretary of the legation. At Paris, early in 1781, he received the appointment from Congress of minister to Russia, clothed with power to make the accession of the United States to the armed neutrality. He resided two years at St. Petersburg, and returned to Berlin in 1783. He was again in Congress in the spring of 1784, and the next year was made a justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. In 1791 he was appointed chief-justice of Massachusetts, which position he held fifteen years, keeping aloof from political life, except in 1792 and 1806, when he was Presidential elector. He retired from the bench and public life in 1806, and died in Cambridge, Mass., April 25, 1811.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diplomatic service. (search)
Denmark. Laurits S. Swenson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Copenhagen. Dominican republic. William F. Powell, Charge d'affaires, Port au Prince. Ecuador. Archbald J. Sampson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Quito. Egypt. John G. Long, Agent and Consul-General, Cairo. France. Horace Porter, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Paris. German Empire. Andrew D. White, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Berlin. Great Britain. Joseph H. Choate, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, London. Greece, Rumania, and Servia. Arthur S. Hardy, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Athens. Guatemala and Honduras. W. Godfrey Hunter, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Guatemala City. Haiti. William F. Powell, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Port au Prince. Italy. ————, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Rome. Japa
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Electricity in the nineteenth century. (search)
nt, compact, and durable continuous-current dynamo. It was in a sense the culmination of many years of development, beginning with the early attempts immediately following Faraday's discovery, already referred to. In 1872 Von Hefner Alteneck, in Berlin, modified the ring winding of Gramme and produced the drum winding, which avoided the necessity for threading wire through the centre of the iron ring as in the Gramme construction. At the Centennial Exhibition, held at Philadelphia in 1876, bis complete. The period which has elapsed since the first introduction of electric railways is barely a dozen years. It is true that a few tentative experiments in electric traction were made some time in advance of 1888, notably by Siemens, in Berlin, in 1879 and 1880, by Stephen D. Field, by T. A. Edison, at Menlo Park, by J. C. Henry, by Charles A. Van Depoele, and others. Farmer, in 1847, tried to propel railway cars by electric motors driven by currents from batteries carried on the cars
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Embargo acts. (search)
ntment of John Jay (q. v.) followed. On the receipt of despatches from Minister Armstrong, at Paris, containing information about the new interpretation of the Berlin decree and also of the British Orders in Council, President Jefferson, who had called Congress together earlier than usual (Oct. 25, 1807), sent a message to tha It also contained sound views on the whole subject of the orders and decrees. Canning insisted that, as France was the original aggressor, by the issuing of the Berlin decree, retaliation (the claimed cause of the embargo) ought, in the first instance, to have been directed against that power alone; and England could not consentoperation of the British orders was merely incidental, but to France, against which country, in a spirit of just retaliation, they had been originally aimed. The Berlin decree had been the beginning of an attempt to overthrow the political power of Great Britain by destroying her commerce, and almost all Europe had been compelled
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