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Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 68 0 Browse Search
Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, Louis Agassiz: his life and correspondence, third edition 6 0 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 4 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10 4 0 Browse Search
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 4 0 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Harvard Memorial Biographies 4 0 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 2 0 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 2 2 0 Browse Search
Mary Thacher Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Higginson: the story of his life 2 0 Browse Search
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Margaret Fuller Ossoli 2 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) or search for Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) in all documents.

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lt's Eleemens d'artillerie. He was preceptor to Louis XIII. of France, and ascribes the invention to a certain Marin of Lisieux, who presented one to Henry IV. of France, about A. D. 1600. An instrument of this kind was invented by Guter of Nuremberg about A. D. 1656. Various shapes have been adopted, from that of the ordinary musket to a gun resembling a common, stout walkingstick. It consists of a lock, stock, barrel, and ramrod; and is provided with proper cocks for filling it with comrmor has not as clear claims to antiquity as the diving-bell, if we accept the accounts of Aristotle and Jerome. The earliest distinct account of the diving-bell in Europe is probably that of John Taisnier, quoted in Schott's Technica Curiosa, Nuremberg, 1664, and giving a history of the descent of two Greeks in a diving-bell, in a very large kettle, suspended by rope, mouth downward ; which was in 1538, at Toledo, in Spain, and in the presence of the Emperor Charles V. Beckman cites a prin
last maintained. Wooden bellows were known in Germany in the middle of the sixteenth century, but it is not certain by whom they were invented. Lobsinger of Nuremberg (1550), and Schelhorn of Schmalebuche, in Coburg (1630), are cited as having introduced them. They are described in a work by Reyner, professor at Kiel, 1669, patented in 1828. Wooden bellows, in which one open-ended box is made to slip within another, with valves for the induction and eduction of air, were used at Nuremberg, 1550. They were used in the next century for smelting, blacksmithing, and for organs. Such a machine is in principle the same as Fig. 106, and the converse ofppens in a smoothbore gun, owing to the difference in diameter between the bullet and the bore. Bullets. The rifle was introduced by Koller, a gunsmith of Nuremberg, about the beginning of the 16th century, and the increased accuracy given by this species of arm was soon appreciated; and from the fact of a troop of horse kno
a pair of dividers, but with arched legs, and adapted for taking the diameter of convex or concave bodies. It is said to have been invented by an artificer of Nuremberg in 1540. This will not do; the calipers is a mechanical thumb and finger, a device of very ancient date, and is shown on Roman tombs. See compasses. a is earliest playing-cards which he has had an opportunity of examining were evidently stenciled, and of the date of 1440. Stenciling cards was quite a business at Nuremberg, 1433-77, as appears by the town books. Chatto regards cards as an Eastern invention, and supposes that they became known in Europe as a popular game between 13d marks are known were Israel de Mecheln, of Bokholt, in the bishopric of Munster; Martin Schoen, of Colmar, in Alsace, where he died 1486; Michael Wolgemuth, of Nuremberg, the preceptor of the famous Albert Durer. Cop′per-plate Print′ing-press. This press is for obtaining impressions from sunken engravings; that is, those in
lates. e represents forms of pinion wire. f shows faney forms of wire used with others as pins in the surface of a wooden block used in calico-printing. The essential feature of wire-drawing is the drawplate. This was probably known at Nuremberg early in the fourteenth century, and how much before is not apparent. The History of Augsburg, 1351, and that of Nuremberg, 1360, mention the wire-drawer (Drahzieher). The draw-plate was imported into France by Archal, and into England by SchuNuremberg, 1360, mention the wire-drawer (Drahzieher). The draw-plate was imported into France by Archal, and into England by Schultz (1565). The drawplate is probably an Oriental invention. The draw-plate is made of a cylindrical piece of cast-steel, one side being flatted off. Several holes of graduated sizes are punched through the plate from the flat side, and the holes are somewhat conical in form. The wire is cleaned of its oxide in a tumbling-box, and is then annealed. It is then drawn through as many of the holes in succession as may be necessary to bring it to the required size. The wire is occasionally ann
ered with an asphaltum ground; the work is etched in, cutting away so much of the ground and exposing the stone. Acid is then applied, which eats away the stone, making a depression; this is inked, the asphaltum cleaned off, the clear spaces etched, and gummed as usual in the lithographic process. Etching-needle. A sharp-pointed instrument for scratching away the ground on a prepared plate, preparatory to the biting-in. Etching on glass. This art was invented by Schwanhard of Nuremberg, 1670, and originated in an accident to his spectacles, which became corroded by some drops of acid. Fluoric acid, discovered by Scheele, 1771, is now employed for corroding, or, as it is technically called, biting-in the etching. The glass is covered with a resinous ground, and the design marked by an etching-point, exposing the glass. The latter is then subjected to an acid, which acts upon the silicate and eats away the glass at these points, making depressions which constitute the e
itect of the bridge of Trajan across the Danube, mentions the sipho. Its construction seems to be unknown. Apollodorus recommends a leathern bag of water with hollow canes for discharging-nozzles. The first notice of the modern fire-engine is in the Chronicles of Augsburg, 1518, which speaks of the water-syringe useful at fires. They were mounted on wheels, and worked by levers. Similar devices are referred to by Lucar, 1590; Greatorix, 1656; and Morland, 1670. The fire-engine of Nuremberg described by Caspar Schott, 1657, was of a different character. It was mounted on a sled 4 × 10 feet, and drawn by two horses. It had a cistern 2 × 8 feet and 4 feet deep, in which were two horizontal cylinders. The brakes were worked by twenty-eight men, and the combined streams from the cylinders issued at a one-inch orifice, and reached a hight of 80 feet. An English patent appears of the date of 1632 to Thomas Grant, and one to John Van der Heyden (or Heide), of Amsterdam, 1663.
. It has been affirmed that the art of glass-cutting was invented at the beginning of the seventeenth century by one Caspar Lehmann, of Prague, who was patronized by the Emperor Rodolphus II. Schwanhard, an apprentice of Lehmann, removed to Nuremberg, where he worked for many of the principal nobility, and hence this city acquired the reputation of being the birthplace of the new art; which was afterward much improved by the introduction of new tools and cheaper methods. Previous to thisterior was occupied by ladders and platforms, from which its painted surface was viewed. It was closed in 1861. Martin Behaim on his world apple, the celebrated globe which he finished in 1492, and which is still kept in the Behaim house in Nuremberg, places the coast of China (by estimate), only 100° west of the Azores. Marinus of Tyre had advanced the Chinese coast to the longitude of the Sandwich Islands, being misdirected by the calculations in the Asiatic itineraries, and thereby givi
its as their neighbors, and have written on waxed tablets, linen cloth, palm leaves, bark, etc. The use of parchment was not yet, if we may credit the assertion that it was invented by the king of Pergamus as a substitute for the papyrus, on which an embargo was laid by the reigning Ptolemy, whoever he was. The use of linen paper in Europe appears to have originated in Germany, about the eleventh or twelfth century, the exact date being undeterminable. We read of a German paper-mill at Nuremberg in 1390, one in England in 1343, in France, 1314, Italy, 1367. Linen paper, however, is yet preserved, containing documents of much older date. John Tate had a mill at Stevenage, England, in 1496, but the manufacture was much increased by Spielman in 1588. This person was a German jeweler, and established a paper-mill at Deptford during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Whatman's mill was established at Maidstone in 1770. The name is yet a famous brand. Linen-Prover. Lin′en-p
period at which Vespucci was named Piloto Mayor would alone be sufficient to refute the accusation first brought against him in 1533 by the astronomer Schoner of Nuremberg, of having astutely inserted the words Terra di Amerigo in charts which he altered. The high esteem and respect which the Spanish court paid to the hydrographic of the name of America in the editions of Ptolemy's Geography. It is a great error to regard the map of 1527, now in Weimar, obtained from the Ebner library at Nuremberg, and the map of 1529 of Diego Ribero, engraved by Gussfeld, as the oldest maps of the new continent. Vespucci had visited the coasts of South America in 1499 (lic dust. Grains of metal for giving a metallic luster to wall-paper, shellwork, lacquered ware, and for other purposes. It was first made by John Hautsch of Nuremberg (1595 – 1670). It is prepared by sifting the filings of different metals, washing them in a strong lye, and then placing them on a metallic plate over a strong f
nd from the tapestry that has survived thirty centuries that they were skillful and painstaking seamstresses. A woman must not go out on the sabbath With a needle that has an eye. Mishna. The Phrygians and Hebrews held fine needlework in high estimation. Needles of bronze were used by the Greeks and Romans, are described by Pliny, and have been found in Herculaneum. The history of art progress during the Middle Ages is a blank, but we find that needles were manufactured at Nuremberg in 1370. The history of their manufacture in England is involved in doubt, but it is said to have been introduced about 1543– 45, either by a Spanish negro or a native of India, who died without disclosing the secret of his process. It was recovered during the reign of Elizabeth, by Growse, a German. In 1650, Christopher Greening and a Mr. Damer established needle-factories at Long Crendon, near Redditch, and were soon followed by other needlemakers from London. Redditch is yet the
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