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an asylum, and the boldest writings, which in other countries circulated by stealth, were openly published to the world. But in their European relations, the Netherlands were no more a great maritime power. They had opulent free ports in the West Indies, colonies in South America, Southern Africa, and the East Indies, with the best harbor in the Indian Ocean: their paths, as of old, were on the deep, and their footsteps in many waters. They knew they could be opulent only through commerce, aeas, allowed but four and thirty vessels, some of them small ones, to engage in voyages between itself and the Continent of America on the Atlantic side, and all along the Pacific; while but four others plied to and fro between Spain and the West India Isles. Having admirable harbors on every side, and a people on the coasts, especially in Biscay and Catalonia, suited to life at sea, all its fisheries, its coasting trade, its imports and exports, and all its colonies, scarcely employed sixteen
be done by unorganized men, constituting only about a tenth of the people, in the land in which they were but sojourners? They were willing to quit a soil which was endeared to them by no traditions; and the American colonies opened their arms to receive them. They began to change their abode as soon as they felt oppression; Boulter to the Duke of Newcastle, 23 Nov. 1728: The whole North is in a ferment at present, and people every day engaging one another to go the next year to the West Indies. The humor has spread like a contagious distemper; and the people will hardly hear anybody that tries to cure them of their madness. The worst is, that it affects only Protestants, and reigns chiefly in the North. Plowden's Historical Review, i. .276. Compare, too, Dean Swift's Letters. and every successive period of discontent swelled the tide of emigrants. Just after the peace of Paris, the Heart of Oak Protestants of Ulster, weary of strife with their landlords, came over in great
July, when they vanished from sight. Bouquet was at that time making his way to relieve Fort Pitt and reinforce Detroit. His little army consisted chiefly of the remains of two regiments of Highlanders, I have therefore ordered the remains of the 42d and 77th regiment, the first consisting of 214 men, including officers, and the latter of 133, officers included, which will march this evening. Amherst to Bouquet, 23 June, 1763. who, having been wasted by the enfeebling service of the West Indies, were now to brave the danger of mountain passes and a slow and painful journey through the wilderness. He moved onwards with but about five hundred men, driving a hundred beeves and twice that number of sheep, with powder, flour, and provisions on pack-horses and in wagons chap. VII.} 1763. July. drawn by oxen. Between Carlisle and Bedford they passed the ruins of mills, deserted cabins, fields waving with the harvest, but without a reaper, and all the signs of a savage and ruthless
oduce sixty thousand pounds per annum, and twice that sum if extended to the West Indies. Henry McCulloh to Charles Jenkinson, Turnham Green, 5 July, 1763, in a nted agent to the province of North Carolina by the Assembly [see America and West Indies, vol. 198], but the resolve, to which Governor Tryon had no objection, dropp imposing proper stamp duties upon his majesty's subjects in America and the West Indies. C. Jenkinson to the Commissioners of Stamps. Letter Book, XXII. p. 432: imposing proper Stamp Duties upon His Majesty's Subjects in America and the West Indies. I am, &c. C. Jenkinson.—23 Sept. 1763. Who was the author of the Ameribecause it would occasion less expense of officers, and would include the West India Islands; Grenville, in the House of Commons, in the debate of 5 March, 1770: Futy, as it would occasion less expense of officers, and would include the West India islands. Gordon's History of the American Revolution, i. 158. and speaking for h
object of their care. All officers, both civil, and military, and naval, in America and the West Indies, were to give their cooperation. We depend, said a memorial from the chap. IX.} 1763. Oct.tenants, Campbell, 7. and would owe their landlord a large annual rental. In the small West India islands, an agrarian law set bounds to the cupidity for land. Egmont, the new head of the admiral ruins. A month later the Nov. slight stockade at Tombecbe, Florida, in America, and the West Indies, CXXXIV. Gayarre, II. 108. in the west of the Choctaw country, was delivered up. In all thisrectly to any part of America, to the southward of those colonies; that is, to the foreign West India islands; 4 Geo. III. c. XXVII. Regulations, &c. 52, 53. so that the broken and mowburnt rice ty, will be collected by the fewest officers, and will be equally spread over America and the West Indies. Israel Mauduit, in Mass. Hist. Collections, IX. 270. What ought particularly to recommen
the same Creator with their brethren of Great Britain. The colonists are men; the colonists are therefore free born; for, by the law of nature, all men are free born, white or black. No good reason can be given for enslaving those of any color. Is it right to enslave a man because his color is black, or his hair short, and curled like wool, instead of Christian hair? Can any logical inference in favor of slavery be drawn from a flat nose or a long or a short face? The riches of the West Indies, or the luxury of the metropolis, should not have weight to break the balance of truth and justice. Liberty is the gift of God, and cannot be annihilated. Nor do the political and civil rights of the British colonists rest on a charter from the Crown. Old Magna Charta was not the beginning of all things; nor did it rise on the borders of chaos out of the unformed mass. A time may come when parliament shall declare every American charter void; but the natural, inherent, and inseparab
phlet. But the two branches of the ministry pursued their course, independent of each other, and without discord. A dispute had arisen in West Florida between the fiery and half frantic governor, Johnstone State Paper Office. America and West Indies, CCXXIV., and the commanding officer. Johnstone insisted on the subordination of the military. The occasion was seized to proclaim its supremacy in America. The continent was divided into a northern and southern district, each with its brigg internal taxes as impost duties, or taxes on intercolonial trade, or laws of navigation. The house was full, and all present seemed to acquiesce in silence. Yet Beckford, a member for London, a friend of Pitt, and himself a large owner of West India estates, without disputing the supreme authority of parliament, openly declared his opinion, that taxing America for the sake of raising a revenue would never do. Cavendish Debates, i. 41. Jackson, who had concerted with Grenville to pro
be loaded upon any horse, cart, or carriage for conveyance. America abounded in iron ores of the best quality, as well as in wood and coal; slitting mills, steel furnaces, and plating forges, to work with a tilt hammer, were prohibited in the colonies as nuisances. While free labor was debarred of its natural rights, the slave trade was encouraged with unrelenting eagerness; and in the year that had just expired, from Liverpool alone, seventy-nine ships had borne from Africa to the West Indies and the continent more than fifteen thousand three hundred negroes, two-thirds as many as the first colonists of Massachusetts. And now taxation, direct and indirect, was added to colonial restrictions; and henceforward both were to go together. A duty was to be collected on foreign sugar, molasses, indigo, coffee, Madeira wine, imported directly into any of the plantations in America; also a duty on Portugal and Spanish wines, on Eastern silks, on Eastern calicoes, on foreign linen c
nd more before the news of the change of chap. XVI.} 1765. Aug. ministry was received in Boston, and while the passions of the public mind throughout the continent were still rising, Jared Ingersoll, of Connecticut, late agent for that province, now its stamp-master, arrived from England at Boston; and the names of the stamp distributors were published on the eighth of August. But Grenville's craftily devised policy of employing Americans failed from the beginning. It will be as in the West Indies, clamored the people; there the negro overseers are the most cruel. Had you not rather, said a friend of Ingersoll, these duties should be collected by your brethren than by foreigners? No, vile miscreant! indeed we had not, answered Dagget, Connecticut Gaz. 9 August. of New Haven. If your father must die, is there no defect in filial duty in becoming his executioner, that the hangman's part of the estate may be retained in the family? If the ruin of your country is decreed, are
se, according to the general chap. XXIII.} 1766. Feb. perceptible workings of Providence, where the crime most commonly, though slowly, yet surely, draws down a similar and suitable punishment, that slavery begets slavery. Jamaica and our West India islands demonstrate this observation, which I hope will not be our case now, whatever might have been the consequence had the fatal attempt been delayed a few years longer, when we had drank deeper of the Circaean draught, and the measures of our i that the exports from the province to Britain could not exceed forty thousand pounds; that the balance was paid from remittances to England for American produce, carried to our own islands, or to the French, Spaniards, Danes, and Dutch in the West Indies, or to other colonies in North America, or to different parts of Europe, as Spain, Portugal, and Italy; that these remittances were greatly interrupted by new regulations, and by the English men-of-war and cutters stationed all along the coast