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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Central America, (search)
Central America, A large expanse of territory connecting North and South America, and comprising in 1901 the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The region was discovered by Columbus, in his fourth voyage, in 1502. He found the bay of Honduras, where he landed; then proceeded along the main shore to Cape Gracias a Dios; and thence to the Isthmus of Darien, hoping, but in vain, to obtain a passage to the Pacific Ocean. At the isthmus he found a harbortempt of Europeans to make a permanent lodgment on the continent of America. Many attempts have been made in recent years to bring about a federation of the five republics, the latest in 1895, when the Greater Republic of Central America was formed, and in 1898, when, by treaty, Honduras. Salvador, and Nicaragua formed the United States of Central America, Guatemala and Costa Rica declining to enter the compact. Local revolutions and mutual jealousies have so far prevented a permanent union.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Consular service, the (search)
pon the present allowance. So, too, in Europe, in such places as Liege, and Copenhagen, and Nice, and many others where the salary is $1,500 and the unofficial work yields hardly any return. These are only a few of the most glaring cases, but the position of a man without property of his own sufficient to make him practically independent of his salary so far as subsistence is concerned, who goes, for instance, to Trieste, Cologne, Dublin, or Leeds, or to Sydney, New South Wales, or to Guatemala, or Managua, or to Tamatave, Madagascar, or to Odessa, or Manila, or Beirut, or Jerusalem, on a salary of $2,000 is relatively little better off. Nor is the position of a consul at Buenos Ayres, or at Brussels, or at Marseilles, Hamburg, Sheffield, Nuevo Laredo, Athens, Ningpo, or Victoria, B. C., with a salary of $2,500 to be envied, with the necessary demands which he is obliged to meet. It is of course notorious that there are many more applicants for even the worst of these offices
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diaz del Castillo, Bernal, 1498-1593 (search)
Diaz del Castillo, Bernal, 1498-1593 Military officer; born in Medina del Campo, Spain, about 1498; came to America as an adventurer in 1514, joining the expedition of Cordova in 1517, and of Grijalva in 1518. He served Cortez faithfully and valiantly. During his adventurous career he was engaged in 119 battles and skirmishes, and was wounded several times. He wrote a history of the conquest of New Spain, which he completed in 1568, intended to correct the misstatements of Gomara's Chronicle of New Spain, in which nearly all the glory of its conquest was given to Cortez. Diaz was a rough, unlettered soldier, and his history has been pronounced a collection of fables. He died in Guatemala, about 1593.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Diplomatic service. (search)
aordinary and Plenipotentiary, Berlin. Great Britain. Joseph H. Choate, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, London. Greece, Rumania, and Servia. Arthur S. Hardy, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Athens. Guatemala and Honduras. W. Godfrey Hunter, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Guatemala City. Haiti. William F. Powell, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Port au Prince. Italy. ————, Ambassador Extraordinary ary and Plenipotentiary. Germany. Herr von Holleben, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Great Britain. The Right Honorable Lord Pauncefote, of Preston, G. C.B., G. C.M. G., Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. Guatemala. Señor Don Antonio Lazo Arriaga, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Haiti. Mr. J. N. Leger, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Italy. Baron de Fava, Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Las Casas, Bartolome de 1474-1566 (search)
growing robust while laboring under the hot sun, he proposed the introduction of negro slaves to relieve the more effeminate natives. This benevolent proposition gave rise to a lucrative traffic, and a perversion of the purpose of Las Casas, and he obtained from Charles V. a grant of a large domain on the coast of Venezuela, for the purpose of collecting a colony under his own guidance. This project failed, and in 1527 he proceeded to labor as a missionary among the Indians in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. To reward him for his benevolent labors, his King appointed him bishop of Cuzco, a rich see; he declined it, but accepted that of Chiapa, in Mexico. The Spaniards were offended by his zeal in behalf of the Indians, and an officer of the Spanish Court undertook to justify the conduct of the Spaniards towards the natives. Las Casas, in selfdefence, wrote a work upon the natives, which contained many particulars of the cruelties of the Spanish colonists. It was translat
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Railway, the Intercontinental (search)
rk City to Buenos Ayres, the railway would be 10,221 miles long, and to finish and equip it would cost at least $200,000,000. This length and cost would also be increased when the line is extended through Patagonia to the southern limits of South America. Complete surveys prove that a practical route can be had, and the road built in a reasonable time. The route of this road can be traced on a railroad map, while the following table shows the distances, the miles built, and the gaps to be filled: Countries. Built. Proposed.Total. United States 2,0942,094 Mexico 1,1834611,644 ————————— Total in North America 3,277 461 3,738 Guatemala 43 126 169 San Salvador 64 166 230 Honduras 71 71 Nicaragua 103 106 209 Costa Rica 360 360 ————————— Total in Central America 210 829 1,039 Colombia 1,3541,354 Ecuador 658 658 Peru 151 1,633 1,784 Bolivia 195 392 587 Argentina 936 125 1,061 ————————— Total in South America 1,282 4
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Taylor, Zachary 1784- (search)
tion negotiated by Elijah Hise, our late charge d'affaires, with the State of Guatemala. I also transmit, for the information of the Senate, a copy of a treaty ne 1848, Elijah Hise, being appointed charge d'affaires of the United States to Guatemala, received his instructions, a copy of which is herewith submitted. In these osed of the five states of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Honduras, San Salvador, and Guatemala, and their continued separation, authorize Mr. Hise to conclude treaties of commerce with the republics of Guatemala and San Salvador, but conclude with saying that it was not deemed advisable to empower Mr. Hise to conclude a treaty with eitt. The instructions to E. George Squier, appointed by me charge d'affaires to Guatemala on April 2, 1849, are herewith submitted as fully indicating the views which reaty concluded with Mr. Squier, and that the special convention concluded at Guatemala by Mr. Hise, the charge d'affaires of the United States, and Señor Selva, the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Treaties. (search)
inating difficultiesParisSept. 30, 1800 Treaty of Regarding treaty of Oct. 27, 1795ParisApril 30, 1803 Treaty of Commercial reciprocityWashingtonJuly 24, 1899 Guatemala: Convention of Peace, amity, commerce, navigationGuatemalaMar. 3, 1849 Foreign Power and Object of Treaty.Where Concluded.Date. German Empire: Convention oGuatemalaMar. 3, 1849 Foreign Power and Object of Treaty.Where Concluded.Date. German Empire: Convention of Consuls and trade-marksBerlinDec. 11, 1871 Treaty of Commercial reciprocityJune, 1900 Great Britain: Convention of ArmisticeVersaillesJan. 20, 1783 Treaty of PeaceParisSept. 3, 1783 Treaty of Amity, commerce, navigationLondonNov. 19, 1794 Convention of Regarding treaty of 1794LondonJan. 8, 1802 Treaty of Peace and amityGheon of Enlarging treaty with Muscat, 1833ZanzibarJuly 3, 1886 General conventions. Convention with Belgium, Brazil, Dominican Republic, France, Great Britain, Guatemala, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Salvador, Servia, Spain, Sweden, Swiss Confederation, and Tunis; conventions for the protection of industrial property
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), United States of America. (search)
arch 23, 1890 Gen. Robert C. Schenck, born 1809, dies in Washington, D. C.......March 23, 1890 Louisville tornado......March 27, 1890 Australian ballot system successfully introduced at a State election in Rhode Island......April 2, 1890 Samuel J. Randall, born 1828, dies at Washington, D. C.......April 13, 1890 McKinley tariff bill introduced from the committee on ways and means......April 16, 1890 Pan-American conference, in which was represented Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru, Guatemala, Colombia, Argentine Republic, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, Bolivia, United States, Venezuela, Chile, San Salvador, and Ecuador, adjourns......April 19, 1890 John C. Fremont placed on the army retired list, with the rank of major-general, by act of April 19; approved......April 21, 1890 Pan-electric suit decided by the Supreme Court in favor of ex-Attorney-General Garland......April 21, 1890 Congress appropriates $150,000 for relief of sufferers from floods on t
Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Book and heart: essays on literature and life, Chapter 30: our criticism of foreign visitors (search)
who has removed far from his old home should expect his father to find his way about a newly built house in Omaha, merely because he himself remembers every nook and corner of the old house in East Belchertown. How much do we ourselves know about any part of the continent, new or old, which we have never visited? How many American citizens could draw, off-hand, a recognizable sketch-map showing the relative positions of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland? How many know whether Guatemala and Yucatan adjoin each other, and which is north or south of the other? It is safe to say not one in a thousand. Nay, how many Eastern citizens even know the relative positions on the map of Wyoming, Idaho, and Arizona, or can state without much reflection the comparative sizes of New York and Nevada? At an examination of teachers in a New England city, scarcely one could be found who knew where Cape Malabar was; some were wholly ignorant, others thought it must be in the East Indies,
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