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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fernow, Berthold 1837- (search)
Fernow, Berthold 1837- Historian; born in Prussian Poland, Nov. 28, 1837; came to the United States in 1860; served in the National army in 1862-64; was New York State archivist in 1876-89; and was also one of the editors and translators of Documents relating to the colonial history of New York; Records of New Amsterdam; and New York in the Revolution. He has also published Albany, and its place in the history of the United States; The Ohio Valley in colonial days; and contributions to the Narrative and critical history of America.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Gurowski, Adam, Count 1805-1866 (search)
Gurowski, Adam, Count 1805-1866 Author; born in Poland, Sept. 10, 1805; came to the United States in 1849. His publications include America and Europe; Slavery in history; My diary (notes on the Civil War), etc. He died in Washington, D. C., May 4, 1866.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hamilton, Alexander 1757- (search)
of a carat is allowed. But the difference seems to be that there it is merely an occasional indemnity within a certain limit for real and unavoidable errors and imperfections, whereas, in the practice of the mints of France and Spain, it appears to amount to a stated and regular deviation from the nominal standard. Accordingly, the real standards of France and Spain are something worse than 22 carats, or 11 parts in 12 fine. The principal gold coins in Germany, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, and Italy, are finer than those of England and Portugal, in different degrees, from 1 carat and 1/4 to 1 carat and 7/8, which last is within 1/8 of a carat of pure gold. There are similar diversities in the standards of the silver coins of the different countries of Europe. That of Great Britain is 222 parts fine to 18 alloy: those of the other European nations vary from that of Great Britain as widely as from about 17 of the same parts better to 75 worse. The principal reasons assig
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jews and Judaism. (search)
the Jew to be almost anything and not simply his own self has been one of the factors producing a certain ill will against him. Disraeli was the most jingo of all imperialists in England; Lasker, the most ardent advocate of the newly constituted German Empire. This pliability is the result of the wandering life he has led and the various civilizations of which he has been a part. He has to find his way into Hellenism in Alexandria, into Moorish culture in Spain, into Slavism in Russia and Poland. When the first wave of the modern spirit commenced to break from France eastward over the whole of Europe, it reached the Jew also. While in France the new spirit was largely political in Germany it was more spiritual. In its political form as well as in its spiritual form it reacted not only upon the political condition of the Jew, but especially upon his mental attitude. The new spirit was intensely modern, intensely cosmopolitan, intensely Occidental, and intensely inductive. The Je
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Kosciuszko, Tadeusz (Thaddeus) 1746- (search)
Kosciuszko, Tadeusz (Thaddeus) 1746- Patriot; born in Lithuania, Poland, Feb. 12, 1746; was of noble descent, and was educated at the military academy at Warsaw; also in France, at the expense of the Polish government. He entered the Polish army as captain, but a passion for the daughter of the marshal of Lithuania caused hi781. For his services in the Continental army he received the thanks of Congress, the Order of the Cincinnati, and the brevet of brigadier-general. Returning to Poland, he fought against the Russians, under Poniatowski, in 1792; but the Polish patriots were defeated, and Kosciuszko retired to Leipsic. Another rising of the Poleto live in Solothurn. Switzerland, in 1816, where he was killed by a fall from his horse over a precipice, Oct. 15, 1817. The remains of this true nobleman of Poland lie beside those of Sobieski and Poniatowski in the cathedral church at Cracow. An elegant monument of white marble was erected to his memory at West Point by t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lafayette, Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves Gilbert Motier, Marquis de 1757- (search)
merican Union, floating to the breeze from the Hall of Independence, at Philadelphia. Nor sordid avarice, nor vulgar ambition, could point his footsteps to the pathway leading to that banner. To the love of ease or pleasure nothing could be more repulsive. Something may be allowed to the beatings of the youthful breast, which make ambition virtue, and something to the spirit of military adventures imbibed from his profession, and which he felt in common with many others. France, Germany, Poland, furnished to the armies of this Union, in our revolutionary struggle, no inconsiderable number of officers of high rank and distinguished merit. The names of Pulaski and De Kalb are numbered among the martyrs of our freedom, and their ashes repose in our soil side by side with the canonized bones of Warren and of Montgomery. To the virtues of Lafayette, a more protracted career and happier earthly destiny were reserved. To the moral principle of political action, the sacrifices of no oth
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Ledyard, John 1751- (search)
nd the world as corporal of marines. He vainly tried to set on foot a trading expedition to the northwest coast of North America, and went to Europe in 1784. He started on a journey through the northern part of Europe and Asia and across Bering Strait to America in 1786-87. He walked around the whole coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, reaching St. Petersburg in the latter part of March, 1787, without money, shoes, or stockings. He had journeyed 1,400 miles on foot in less than seven weeks. Thence he went to Siberia, but was arrested at Irkutsk in February, 1788, conducted to the frontiers of Poland, and there dismissed with an intimation that if he returned into Russia he would be hanged. The cause of his arrest was the jealousy of the Russian-American Trading Company. Going back to London, Ledyard accepted an offer to engage in the exploration of the interior of Africa. He left England in June, 1788, and at Cairo, Egypt, was attacked by a disease which ended his life, Jan. 17, 1789.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lee, Charles 1731- (search)
probably Charles Lee. because of the sharpness and volubility of his tongue concerning the shortcomings of his superior officers. On visiting the Continent after he was put on the halfpay list, he was made an aide-de-camp of King Stanislaus of Poland. He went to England in 1766, where he failed in his attempts to obtain promotion, and returned to Poland, where he was made a major-general, and afterwards served a short time in the Russian army. Finally, Lee made his way to America, where he Poland, where he was made a major-general, and afterwards served a short time in the Russian army. Finally, Lee made his way to America, where he claimed to be the author of the Letters of Junius. He was boastful, restless, impulsive, quarrelsome, egotistical, ironical in expression, and illiberal in his judgment of others. His restlessness caused the Mohawks, who adopted him, to give him a name signifying boiling water. He espoused the cause of the American republicans, and when the Continental army was organized he was chosen second major-general under Washington, which he accepted on condition that the Congress should advance him
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lewis, Meriwether (search)
oscow. His finances not permitting him to make unnecessary stay at St. Petersburg, he left it with a passport from one of the ministers, and at 200 miles from Kamchatka was obliged to take up his winter-quarters. He was preparing, in the spring, to resume his journey, when he was arrested by an officer of the Empress, who by this time had changed her mind, and forbidden his proceeding. He was put into a close carriage, and conveyed day and night, without ever stopping, till they reached Poland, where he was set down and left to himself. The fatigue of this journey broke down his constitution; and when he returned to Paris his bodily strength was much impaired. His mind, however, remained firm; and he after this undertook the journey to Egypt. I received a letter from him, full of sanguine hopes, dated at Cairo, Nov. 15, 1788, the day before he was to set out for the head of the Nile, on which day, however, he ended his career and life; and thus failed the first attempt to explo
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Louis Xvi., King of France (search)
Louis Xvi., King of France Born in Versailles, Aug. 23, 1754; was a grandson of Louis XV. and of a daughter of Frederick Augustus, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony. His father dying in 1765, he became heir presumptive to the throne of France, which he ascended on May 10, 1774, with the beautiful Marie Antoinette, Archduchess of Austria, whom he married in May, 1770, as his Queen. Louis was amiable, fond of simple enjoyments, and was beloved by his people. Through bad advisers and the wickedness of demagogues, he was placed in seeming opposition to the people when his heart was really with them, and the madmen of France, who ruled the realm during the Reign of Terror, brought both Louis and his beautiful Queen to the scaffold. They went through the farce of a trial after Louis Xvi. arraigning the King on a charge of treason, found him guilty, of course, and beheaded him by the guillotine, with accompaniments of vulgar cruelty, in Paris, Jan. 21, 1793. His death was ser
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