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anufacture of cotton in Spain, and in the fourteenth century it was introduced into Italy. When the best part of the inhabitants of Spain were expelled, when the University of Cordova became a thing forgotten on the peninsula, when the memory of Alhazen was lost, and the era of the Pedros and Philips commenced, then the cottonplant, too, faded away, and all the industries growing out of this beautiful staple languished. The culture and manufacture revived again in Spain at Valencia and Barcelona respectively. Fabrics and yarns were largely imported from the East into Europe for several centuries; but the manufacture of the cotton-wool, as it was long called, gradually crept into the various countries of Europe. The earliest notice in England is by Roberts, 1641, who describes the excellent goods, fustians, cermillions, dimities, and other stuffs, made by the inhabitants of Manchester, of cotton-wool brought from Smyrna and Cyprus. First made by machinery by Louis Paul in 17
ed that the multiples and sub-multiples of each kind of measure, whether of weight, capacity, surface, or length, shall be always taken in the decimal or decuple proportion, as the most simple, natural, and easy for calculation, according to the system of numeration which all Europe has used for many centuries. The Institute (National Institute of France) ordered a new and actual measure of the whole are of the meridian extending the whole length of France, from Dunkirk on the north to Barcelona in Spain, and passing Paris, an extent of almost 10°. The measurement of this are employed Mechain and Delambre for several years. They employed rods of platinum of 12 feet in length for measuring the bases; and whole circles, accurately made, for taking the angles to 10ths of seconds, by repeating the measures in different parts of the circumference, and taking the mediums of the whole. The precision with which the angles were observed is such that, out of 90 triangles which connect the
e folio edition Veterum Mathematicorum, Parisiis, Mdcxciii., a copy of which is in the Patent-Office Library. applications of steam. Name.Nationality.Invention.Date. HeroGreekRotary steam-engine (recoil principle)B. C. 150 HeroGreekCylinder and piston in pumps.150 HeroGreekWater fountain caused by pressure of steam150 AnthemiusLydianSteam caldron and escape-pipeA. D. 540 GerbertFrenchSteam-played organ1000 Leonardo da VinciItalianSteam-gun1500 Blasco de Garay?SpanishSteamboat (Barcelona)1543 Baptista PortaItalianSteam water-elevator (boiler and reservoir separate)1600 Solomon de Caus?FrenchSteam water-elevator (boiler and reservoir identical)1620 Giovanni BrancaItalianSteam-blast to rotate fan-wheel applied to pumping and grinding1629 Marquis of WorcesterEnglishSteam water-elevator (two boilers acting alternately)1655 Marquis of WorcesterEnglishFour-way cock1655 Dr. PapinFrenchSteam water-elevator (separation of the steam and water by a float in a cylindrical res
Egypt255Shallow water. 1860*Suakin, Red Sea, to Cassire474 1860*Suakin, Red Sea, to Aden, Arabia627 1860*Aden, Arabia, to Hellania, Arabia718 1860*Hellania, Arabia, to Muscat, Arabia486 1860*Muscat, Arabia, to Kurrachee, India481 1860*Barcelona, Spain, to Mahon, Minorca1981,400 1860*Minorca to Majorca35250 1860*Iviza to Majorca74500 1860St. Antonio to Iviza76450 1861Corfu to Otranto, Italy, about901,000 1861*Malta to Tripoli, Africa230335 1861*Tripoli, Africa, to Bengazi, Africa5084rica660 1874Pernambuco, Brazil, to Bahia, Brazil450 1874Bahia, Brazil, to Rio Janeiro1,240 1874Italy to Sicily7 1874Jamaica to Porto Rico582 1874Rio Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul840 1874Rye Beach, U. S., to Tarr Bay, Nova Scotia550 1874Barcelona, Spain, to Marseilles, France200 1874Shetland to Orkney60 1874Valentia to Newfoundland1,900 United States vessels have lately been employed in taking soundings for the Pacific cable. When this line of telegraph is laid, its length between